Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education

The Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education (NFIE) is a non-profit, tax exempt, religious and educational organization dedicated to serve Islam with a special focus on Tasawwuf(Sufism),

Wednesday, August 17, 2011

The Principles of Tasawwuf by Sheikh Muhammad al-Ya`aqubi

The Principles of Tasawwuf
by Sheikh Muhammad al-Ya`aqubi

إن مبادي كل فن عشره الحد و الموضوع ثم الثمره
و فضله ونسبة و الواضع و الاسم الاستمداد حكم الشارع
مسائل و البعض بالبعض اكتفى و من درى الجميع حاز الشرفا

1. The definition- (الحد) Hundreds of definitions of Tasawwuf have been drawn. The great scholar sidi Ahmed Zarouq says: ”Tasawwuf has more than two thousand explanatory definitions; all ultimately refer to the following: True devotion to Allah from where He likes by the means He likes (صدق التوجه إلى الله من حيث يرضاه بما يرضاه) Some of the common definitions are: Acting upon knowledge العمل بالعلمNoble characterالتصوف أخلاق Acquiring the good characters and getting rid of the bad.

2. The subject-الموضوع: The Divine Essenceالذات العلية as how Allah can be known. Another opinion says that the subject of this discipline is hearts and souls; because it works on their purification and cultivation. Both opinions are correct as the latter looks at the goal and the former looks at the means; as it has been correctly said, ”He who knows himself will know his Lord”.

3. The fruit- الثمرة: The fruit or the benefit of this discipline is the purification of the heart and knowing the Master of the worlds.

4. The merit- فضله :Tasawwuf is a noble discipline of high merit. Its nobility stems from from its subject. Al- Ihsan الإحسان is one of the three levels of this deen and the highest.

5. The relation of this discipline to others- نسبته إلى غيره من العلوم: Tasawwuf is the base of the Sharia; without it all acts of worship would be imperfect. It is the core of the Quran and the Sunnah and the tissue of muslims spiritual life. Imam Malik says: من تصوف و لم يتفقه فقد تزندق و من تفقه و لم يتصوف فقد تفسق و من جمع بينهما فقد تحقق ”Whoever acquires tasawwuf without fiqh is a heretic and whoever studies fiqh without tasawwuf is unrighteous and who combines both has the reality”

6. The pioneer- الواضع : The word al-wadi means the one that sets forth this branch of knowledge. It is of course the Prophet (s). Many ahadith highlight this fact, most famous of wich is hadith Jibril (s). The first one who made this knowledge known is Sayyiduna Ali (r) and then his son Sayyiduna al-Hasan (r) and al-Hasan al-Basriy.

7. The name- الاسم: The name of this science is tasawwufعلم التصوف The word is derrived from souf: wool; or from safa: purity; or from suffa: the special place of a group of the sahaba in the Holy Sanctuary of the Prophet .
The discipline has been known by this name since the second century of hijra, i.e. the time of the salaf . It has been frequently called ilm as-Sulouk, ilm al-Ihsan, ilm at-Tarbiyah or ilm at-Tazkiyah.

8. The sources- الاستمداد : Tasawwuf relies on al-Quran and as-Sunnah as the sources and proofs of its material. The sayings of the great scholars are a rich treasure for the seekers and the masters alike.

9. The legal ruling- حكم الشارع : The legal ruling of studying tasawwuf is fard i.e. obligatory. Since all human beings are susceptable to sins save for the Prophets. Imam Abul Hasan ash-Shadiliy saysمن لم يتغلغل في علمنا هذا مات مصرا على الكبائر و هو لا يشعر ”Who does not deeply study this discipline will die persisting on major sins without being aware of it”.

10. The issues discussed- مسائله: Tasawwuf tackles some of the cardinal elements of the deen such as ikhlas: sincerity; sidq: truthfulness; wara: religious cautioness; tawakkul: reliance; zuhd: asceticism; mahabba: love; and similarly their opposites, wich are called the diseases of the hearts such as insincerity; hypocrisy; arrogance; greed. It also tackles some of the subtlest subjects such as the passing of thoughts; the states of the heart; inspiration. One of its most important subjects is dhikr, the remebrance of Allah and its virtues; another is the sheikh and his qualifications, the disciple murid and his adab.

Basic works in tasawwuf:

  1. The Beauty of the Righteous by al-Hafiz Abu Nuaym al-Asfahani
  2. The Revival of the Sciences of the Deen- Ihya Ulumid-Deen by al-Imam al-Ghazali
  3. Al-Risalah of Imam Abul Qasim al-Qushayriy
  4. The Aphorisms- al-Hikam og Imam Ibn Atta Allah
  5. Revelation of the Unseen by Imam Abdul Qadir al-Jaylaniy


At October 10, 2011 at 2:07 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

JazakAllah Khair for using my post :-)


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