Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education

The Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education (NFIE) is a non-profit, tax exempt, religious and educational organization dedicated to serve Islam with a special focus on Tasawwuf(Sufism),

Thursday, May 28, 2020

The Arrival of Naqshabandi Order from Hijaz to the Malay World: 16th until the Early 19th Centur Muhammad Khairi Mahyuddin

The Arrival of Naqshabandi Order from Hijaz to the Malay World: 16th until the Early 19th Centur
Muhammad Khairi Mahyuddin

This historical study tells a chronology on the arrival of the Naqshabandi order from Hijaz to the Malay World
throughout India and Central Asia.. Naqshabandi Order in the Malay World is identified came from the revival of
Ahmad al-Sirhindi from India. His revival in the Naqshabandi Order called as the mujadidiyyah caused the order
at the beginning in Mecca undergone major polemic during 16th until 17th century. However, later, it is a well-
established in middle of 18th and 19th century with minor polemic by al-Sirhindi’s late  charismatic reputable
legacies effort who migrated from India to Mecca. Their struggle is most welcomed by Malay scholars domiciling
in the Mecca city for  study and pilgrimage travelers. They are responsible spreading the Order  directly from
Mecca to their homeland in numerous provinces in the Malay World, particularly in the early 19th century, until now
Naqshabandi Order is a Sufi practice founded Muhammad Baha al-Din from al-Bukhara, a region in the Central
Asia. The word Naqshabandi ascribed to Baha al-Din consists of two Persian word meaning painting in the heart.
His heart was drawn with the word Allah. Figuratively it indicates his heart having perpetual presence to Allah.
From the  impact of this accident, the word Naqshabandi is applied persistently until today, by his serial heirs over
the  world.  Naqshabandi's  spiritual  lineage  ends  to  the  Prophet  Muhammad  SAW  via  Abu  Bakar  al-Siddiq.
However,  Naqshabandi  order  before  Muhammad  Baha  al-Din  had  been  established  by  Abdul  Khaliq  al-
Ghujadawani. He was a Chief of the Naqshabandi Order because he founded in it eleven principles with Persian
terminologies. The coming of the Naqshabandi Order from Central Asia to Hijaz at the early period started with
Baha al-Din, Muhammad Parsa, Abdul Rahman  al-Jami, Ubaydullah Ahrar and the other outstanding masters
while  performing  the  pilgrimage.  At  the  time  of  pilgrimage,  they  initiated  many  disciples  into  the  Order
(Weismann, 2007) . Hijaz is the region where Mecca and Medina, the Holy Cities are located. Both cities are also
noted as al-haramain (the sacred territory). Hijaz in the present day is known as the Kingdom of Saudia Arabia.
The Naqshabandi Order is identified not only diffused in Mecca by the Central Asia masters but also masters
from India. So, in the Holy cities, Naqshabandi adaption was mostly taught by masters from central Asia and
India.  The development of the Naqshabandi Order in Hijaz appeared into two major lines; the non- mujaddidi and


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