Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education

The Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education (NFIE) is a non-profit, tax exempt, religious and educational organization dedicated to serve Islam with a special focus on Tasawwuf(Sufism),

Saturday, April 9, 2016

Muraqabah & Tawajjuh in Naqshbandi Tariqah

Muraqabah and tawajjuh
In the pre-Mujaddidī Naqshbandī Order, tawajjuḥ (effacing) and murāqabah (controlling) were nearly used as identical terms. ʿAlā al-Dīn al-ʿAṭṭār told his student ʿAbdullāh Imām-ī Iṣfahānī, that tawajjuh is an issue of the heart and that everyone experiences different unveilings/manifestations (ẕuhūrāt) according to their abilities. Then he mentioned five methods of tawajjuh:
The seeker reflects about Allah, Him watching the seeker at every moment, so the seeker avoids all bad deeds with his limbs and even all kinds of bad thoughts.
The seeker reflects about Allah, Him knowing everything occurring to the seeker’s heart and so the seeker protects his heart from all evil thoughts and all that which is not Allah.
The seeker reflects about himself and the world as non-existent and ponders about Allah as the one and only real existence,
The seeker reflects about the existence of everything which is inside and outside the cosmos and that all existence coming forth in both realms is in reality the existence of Allah himself.
He only sees the Essence of only the real existing and nothing else. [2]
Aḥmad Kāsānī describes tawajjuh as “that you do see God in every place existing and present and watching you.” [3]
Some of the Sufis mentioned how tawajjuh is done and said:
“Seekers ready their hearts for God’s manifestations and reflect about Him, that He is nearer to them then their own jugular veins. This then overcomes them and they resemble people falling into a sea, drowning in the sea, not being capable of thinking something else.” [4]
According to ʿUbaydullāh al-Aḥrār quddisa sirruhū, tawajjuh and murāqabah are both means for the Seeker to get ready for clothing himself with the character of God. So all those who already do have a naturally good character, are automatically ascribed to the dervishes. [5]
In Naqshbandī sources we find four different forms of Tawajjuh:
Tawajjuh to God (with the heart),
Tawajjuh to the heart
The Murīd effacing (tawajjuh) his Shaykh,
The Shaykh effacing (tawajjuh) his Murīd.
Tawajjuh to God:
The seeker shows effort to direct his heart and his thoughts towards Allāh subḥānahū wa taʿālā. He repeats the Supreme Name “Allāh” in full concentration, ponders about Him being ominpresent while being transcendent of directions and so the rapture (jazbah) of Allāh finds a place in his heart, because real tawajjuh without jazbah is impossible. [6] He ponders about The Real One, transcendent above all similarities and everything. [7]
Tawajjuh to the heart:
This tawajjuh is applied in two different forms. The Seeker imagines the name “Allāh” written on his heart and he focuses on this writing and effaces it and he reaches the consciousness of being in His divine presence. [8]
Or he thinks about the meaning of the Supreme Name “Allāh” beyond writings and words, beyond Arabic and Persian, and focuses himself totally on his own heart. First he has to force himself to this kind of tawajjuh, but after a while it will be easy for him, and he will get used to it, so that it will even become a custom for him. If this way of tawajjuh is too difficult for him, he imagines the Supreme Name “Allāh” being light which is covering his whole being. He keeps this light in front of his eyes and does focus himself totally on his own heart. [9] Like a turtle is watching his eggs and not looking away for a moment from his eggs, the seekers focuses on his heart and believes like the turtle, who thinks that his eggs will die if he doesn’t look at them for a single moment, that his heart will be ruined if he is not focusing on it for a single moment. Or like a chicken, which thinks that its egg will get broken if it is not sitting on it all the time. The seeker must also focus on his heart the same way as these animals focus on their eggs, and the seeker must shun all heedlessness and worldly thoughts so that he can reach the result. [10]
The “holy principles” (kalimāt-i qudsiyya), which are the eleven principles of wayfaring to God, mention “nigāh dāsht” and “wuqūf-i qalbī”, both carrying the meaning of guarding the heart from thoughts going astray and so both seem to be like tawajjuh. [11]
Effacing the Shaykh:
This tawajjuh means to efface a living or a deceased Shaykh and the main purpose of this is to reach spiritual divine outpouring (fayd) or spiritual support (istimdād). Bāqībillāh said, that while doing Rābīṭa or Tawajjuh, one of the dhikrs from the many dhikrs is going from the heart of the Shaykh to the heart of the Seeker. This happens through reverberation. [12] ʿAbdullāh Imām-i I­ṣfahānī, one of the students of ʿAlā ad-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, describes the method of tawajjuh in the ʿAlāiyya branch of the Path, which includes the effacing of the Shaykh and the heart:
“The seeker first imagines the face of the Shaykh he is affiliated with. When heat and a spiritual state occurs, he leaves this imagination or lets it stay on the side of his imagination and uses his whole strength to efface his heart.” [13]
These are examples of effacing the Shaykh for divine spiritual outpouring (fayd). According to the narrations, one of the students of Amīr al-Kulāl’s son, Amīr Hamza, went out with a caravan to finish some business in another city. While being on the road, they were robbed by bandits and the students effaced the soul of their Shaykh Amīr Hamza. After a while the bandits returned, gave them their belongings back and asked if those people have a spiritual guide like their description. When they said yes, the bandits admitted that they have made tawba and want to become his students. [14] This narration is an example for effacing the shaykh to ask him for spiritual support.
There are also many examples for effacing a deceased spiritual guide. It is well-known that Bahā ad-Dīn Naqshband and ʿUbaydullāh al-ʾAḥrar at the beginning of their spiritual education spent a lot of time at some graves. ʿAla ad-Din al-ʿAṭṭār said that the purpose of visiting a grave is to efface Allāh and that the soul of the inhabitant of the grave can be a means of fully effacing Allāh. [15] But it is not a condition to visit the grave to efface a deceased spiritual guide because it can also be done from a distance, like Bahāʾuddīn Naqshband effacing ʾUways al-Qaranī and Ḥakīm al-Tirmidhī’s souls.[16]
Effacing the Student
Shaykh Muhammad Tahir Bakhshi Naqshbandi Mujaddidi teaching the dhikr to a new seeker
Shaykh Muhammad Tāhir Bakhshi Naqshbandi Mujaddidi inducing the dhikr into the heart of a new seeker by placing his index finger on the seeker’s Laṭīfa Qalb (the heart subtlety). The shaykh induces divine fayḍ into the heart of the seeker, by which the heart immediately starts proclaiming the God’s name “Allah” automatically, and divine attraction (jazba) is induced into the inner self.
Effacing the students means that a spiritual guide effaces his seeker to forward him divine spiritual outpouring (fayḍ) and to grant him perfection. According to a narration, ʿAlī al-Rāmītanī was once visited by a very important guest, but there was no food left at home. Rāmītanī left his house in despair and being outside he saw one of his students approaching his house with food. He was very happy and when he dismissed his guest, he called this student and offered him to ask whatever he wishes. This seeker said that he wants to become a perfect human being as ʿAlī al-Rāmītanī himself is. So al-Rāmītanī effaced the student and in a very short time the student reached perfection. [17] Muḥammad Bābā Samāsī glanced upon Amīr al-Kulāl who was wrestling in the Arena and effaced him. At that moment, a fire fell on the heart of Amīr Kulāl and he was drawn (jazba). He followed the Shaykh and pledged him the oath of allegiance (bayʿa). [18] Bahāuddīn Naqshband also effaced the son of his Shaykh Amīr Kulāl, Amīr Burhān and forwarded divine spiritual outpouring (fayḍ) to him and helped in ripening Amīr Burhān in taṣawwuf. [19] ʿAlāʾuddīn ʿAṭṭār said, that for the effects of the effacement to last, the seeker has to be eager and has to keep the orders of his Shaykh, or several days later this effect will vanish. [20] All these examples show us the effacement of the seeker to forward him divine spiritual outpouring (fayḍ) so he can grow. But in the Mujaddidī Era of the Path, the way of effacing the student became much more detailed and was renewed. Now the spiritual guide took the Seeker in front of him and focused on and effaced the Laṭāʾif (subtleties of the body and soul) one by one and forwarded divine spiritual outpouring to them. This procedure resulted in the Laṭāʾif starting to do dhikr.
Murāqabah
In the first period of the Naqshbandī path, murāqabah was a term which was used nearly identically to tawajjuh. We can see that in this period murāqabah meant to efface ones heart and control it. In tawajjuh the object of the effacement can differ, but in murāqabah the object is always the heart.
A Naqshbandi dervish in Muraqabah. It is common to cover one's head during meditation.
A Naqshbandi dervish in Muraqabah. It is common to cover one’s head during meditation.
Murāqabah of the heart means that the seeker realizes that God is watching over him all the time and is seeing the seeker and his heart. So the seeker controls his outer and inner states, secures his heart so that worldly thoughts (khawāṭir) don’t overcome it (nigāh-dāsht). He ponders about the Supreme Name (Allāh) and effaces his heart. He reviews his deeds and past time and tries to not waste his time in vain and tries to avoid heedlessness in every breath he takes. All that means Murāqabah. [21] It is advised to review ones deeds, called Muḥāsabah, which is part of the Murāqabah, after the Morning Prayer (fajr) and after the afternoon prayer (aṣr) – totally twice a day. [22]
ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn ʿAṭṭār says about Murāqabah:
“The Method of murāqabah is higher than the method of the affirmation and negation (nafī wa ithbāt / dhikr of kalimah al-tawhīd) and nearer to God’s drawing (jazba). Through murāqabah, one can reach the stations of disposal of the angelic and material realms. Recognizing a stray thought (khawāṭir), glancing with insight and enlightening the heart happens through murāqabah.” [23]
Muḥammad Pārsā said about rābiṭah: “A sign for the correct performance of the murāqabah is that the seeker holds onto the divine orders.” He also said, that for the murāqabah to last, one has to cut all worldly connections, be enduring in acting against the wishes of the lower self and has to avoid conversations with heedless people. [24] According to ʿUbaydullāh ʾAḥrār, the reality of murāqabah is waiting. [25] It seems that he means with waiting, that one awaits the divine spiritual outpouring (fayḍ) and avoids while waiting all the astray thoughts. So it is narrated, that one of the first Sufis performing murāqabah was Junayd al-Baghdādī, who learned the murāqabah from a cat, which was waiting motionless in front of the mouse hole entrance to catch the mouse. [26] Mawlānā Sulṭān, one of the students of ʿUbaydullāh ʾAḥrār, said, that murāqabah, like dhikr and tawajjuh, has a own specific kind of light. [27] According to Aḥmad Kāsānī, the end of murāqabah is the beginning of mushāhadah (witnessing). [28] In the resources available, heedless people who haven’t reached the reality of murāqabah but are acting like they have are heavily criticized. [29]
Shams ad-Dīn al-Kulāl, one of the most advanced students of Amīr Kulāl, learned the method of murāqabah on his way to perform his pilgrimage (hajj), while visiting the spiritual guides of Irāq. He was the first one who spread this method in Transoxania. Shāh Naqshband taught this method to Muḥammad Pārsā on their last pilgrimage to the Hijāz. [30]
The murāqabah in the pre-Mujaddidī era meant focusing on the heart and being wary of it, but in the Mujaddidī era itself it was systematized and gained a new meaning: to focus on several koranic verses and terminologies of taṣawwuf and to deeply reflect about them. [31] Courtesy Mohammad Mojaddadi Facebook

Hadhrat Shaykh Shah Abdullah Ghulam Ali Dehlawi Naqshbandi RA

Hadhrat Syah ‘Abdullah Ghulam ‘Ali Dehlawi Naqsyabandi
He was the Mujaddid of 13th century of the Hijri calendar. A Mujaddid is the highest post of Awliya who revives the religion of Islam at the start of every century, and all the Awliya of that century get benefited from his Fayd (spiritual blessings).
Hadhrat Shāh Abdullāh Mujaddidī Naqshbandī, more popular with the name Shah Ghulām Ali Dehlavī, may Allah sanctify his soul, was the most prominent Sufi Shaykh of India in the early 13th Hijri century. A great scholar of Islamic sciences and the ultimate Shaykh of the Mujaddidi Sufi order, he was the immediate spiritual successor of Hadhrat Mirzā Mazhar Jān-e-Jānān, may Allah sanctify his soul, who is known to be one of the earliest poets of modern Urdu as well as a renowned Sufi master.
He had mastered all the Sufi methods and was the greatest Shaykh of all Sufi orders in India at that time. He was a master of all Islamic sciences such as Hadīth and Fiqh, and was the Mujaddid of the 13th century AH. He was the chief Qutb under whose command are all the saints of the world. He was the Qayyūm of his times.
He was born in 1156 A.H / 1743 C.E., in Patiala (currently in Indian Punjab). His father Sayyid Abdul Latīf Batālvi, may peace be upon him, was a great ascetic and Sufi of the Qādri tarīqa (method) and a disciple of Shaykh Nāsiruddīn Qādri.
Just before his birth, his father had a vision that Hadhrat Ali al-Murtadhā, may Allah be pleased with him, came to him and asked him to name his to-be-born son as “Ali”. Accordingly, he was named Ali at birth, but later he changed it to Ghulām Ali (meaning Slave of Ali). His uncle, however, named him “Abdullāh” as commanded by the Messenger of Allah, may peace and blessings be upon him. Today he is known with both the names, although “Ghulam Ali” is more common.
He had a sharp memory and memorized the Holy Quran in just a month. His father wanted to make him a disciple of his own shaykh Hadhrat Nāsiruddin Qādri, and called him to Delhi for this purpose. When he reached Delhi, soon the Shaykh passed away and his father then allowed him to take any Shaykh as he wanted. He used to go to Suhbat (company) of many Shaykhs in Delhi, and after two years, at the age of 22, he did Bay’āh (initiation into a Sufi tariqa) with Hadhrat Mirzā Mazhar Jān-e-Jānān, may Allah be pleased with him, who was the greatest Sufi master in Delhi at that time. Famous author and Sufi scholar Shah Wali-Allah Dehlavi commented about Shaykh Jān-e-Jānān that he is the greatest among the Awliya today in the whole world, and I can’t find a like of him in all the seven continents.
He was initiated by his Shaykh in the Qādrī silsila (chain or dynasty) but was trained in the Naqhsbandi tarīqa. This created confusion in him, as he says I was doubtful if my being trained in the Naqshbandi tarīqa would displease Sayyidina Ghaus al-Ãzam, may Allah be pleased with him (who is the founder of the Qādri tarīqa). One day I saw in a dream that Hadhrat Ghaus al-Ãzam is sitting in a house, and Hadhrat Shāh Naqshband is sitting in a neighboring house. I wish to go to Shah Naqshband, and Hadhrat Ghaus al-Ãzam permits me to go there, saying the objective is only the God (not seeking a specific tarīqa).
After serving his Shaykh and getting spiritual training for fifteen years, Shah Ghulām Ali purified himself and got perfected in all the Sufi orders, and received Ijāzah (authority) from his Shaykh and became his chief khalīfa, and later, his spiritual successor.
Sufi lineage
He received Ijāzah from his Shaykh in several Sufi orders, mainly the Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi tariqa. He was the foremost Shaykh of this tariqa in his time, with no equal in any part of the world. Indeed, he was the Mujaddid (revivor) of the 13th century After Hijrah, as proclaimed by him in his Malfūzat and acknowledged by majority of Islamic scholars. He was also trained and perfected in other major Sufi orders, specially the Qādri and Chishti orders, the most prevalent in India after the Naqshbandi. Many prominent Shaykhs of other orders used to consult him in spiritual matters, as he was the ultimate guide in all orders in Delhi.
He received authority in the Naqshbandi tariqa from his Shaykh Mirza Mazhar Jān-e-Jānān, who received it from Hadhrat Noor Muhammad Badāyūnī, who received it from Hadhrat Hāfiz Muhammad Mohsin Dehlavi, who received it from Hadhrat Khwāja Saifuddin Fārūqi Sirhindi, who received it from his father Hadhrat Khwaja Muhammad Ma’soom Fārūqi Sirhindi, who received it from Hadhrat Imam Rabbāni Mujaddid Alf Thāni Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi Fārūqi, may Allah sanctify their souls and bless us with their Fayd.
He received permission in the Qādri and Chishti Sufi orders from his Shaykh Mirza Mazhar Jān-e-Jānān, who received it from Khwaja Muhammad Ãbid Sanāmi, who received it from Shaykh Abdul Ahad Sirhindi, who received it from Shaykh Muhammad Saeed Fārūqi Sirhindi, who received it from his father Imam Rabbani Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi, may Allah sanctify their souls.1
His Character
He was extremely humble and modest. One time, a street dog entered his home. The Shaykh prayed to God: Who am I to ask for the intercession of your friends? O God! Please forgive me for the sake of your creation (the dog).
Some people would take (steal) his books and then come back to him to sell the same books. He would laud those books and buy from them. If someone pointed out that the books were from his library and stamped, he would not listen.
Well known Indian politician and educator Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (d. 1898) was also associated with the Shaykh during his early life. He has written that my father and elder brother had Bay’ah with the Shaykh, and the Shaykh loved my family and considered my father as his son. Sir Syed has highly admired him in his writings. He reports:
“At least five hundred persons used to live in Hadhrat’s shrine, and the expenses of their food and dress were born by the Shaykh, even though there was no fixed income for the shrine. Allah was providing from the Ghayb (Unseen). Even more, the Shaykh was so benevolent and generous, he never refused any thing to the supplicants. He gave away whatever was asked for. He used to sell any expensive gifts and spent the amount on the fakirs. He would wear whatever they wore, and would eat whatever they ate.” (Sir Syed Ahmed Khan)
Sir Syed further writes, he used to recite ten ajzā (para in Urdu, thirtieth part of the holy Quran) from the Quran after Fajr, and then would do Murāqaba along with his disciples. After Ishrāk (early morning prayer after sunrise), lessons of Hadīth and Tafsīr would start. Whenever he heard the name of the Prophet, may peace be upon him, he would get excited and a strange spiritual state would prevail over the attendees.
He did not sleep in the night except, sometimes, for a few moments due to the overwhelming of sleep when he would lie down on his Musalla (praying place). He never slept over a bed for many years. He had an old carpet, over it a Musalla usually made of bulrush where he would pray day and night, while his disciples would encircle him in Halqa. His trust on God made him free of the offerings of the elite. Many rich persons including the king wanted to financially support the khānaqah, but he never accepted.
With all his simplicity and freedom, he never acted against the Sunnah, rather followed the Shariah and Sunnah in the smallest of matters. He would not like people acting against the Sunnah to visit him.
Teachings
He said, the seeker of Zoq and Shoq (feelings of emotional enthusiasm) and visions and miracles is not the seeker of God. The seeker must only seek God alone, and anything that comes in the way must be negated, and he should affirm that I have no other goal but the Pure Being.
He said, there is no hardship in my tarīqa, but there is Wuqūf Qalbi which means one should always keep the heart heedful of the Exalted Being (God) and should protect it from the past and present dangers (harmful and useless thoughts).
He said, Zakāt is obligatory after the passage of a year, but I pay it as soon as I get any income (according to the recommended practice in Hanafi Fiqh).
Miracles and Visions
Numerous miracles (Karāmāt) and spiritual visions are narrated about him. His supplications were immediately accepted. His prayers cured the sick and his talk cured the hearts. He knew what was in the minds of the listeners, and would talk according to that. His greatest miracle was his curing the hearts from spiritual diseases and purifying the souls from the worldly dirt. Some of his visions and miracles are presented here.
He said, one night I called “Ya Rasool-Allah” (O Messenger of Allah), and heard a reply “Labbaika Yā Abdun Sāleh” (I am present O pious slave).
He said, one night I slept before Isha. The Messenger of Allah, may peace and blessings be upon him, came (in vision) and commanded me not to sleep before offering Isha.
One of his disciples Zulf Shah said, “When I was traveling to Delhi in order to take Bay’ah with the Shaykh, I lost my way in a desert. Suddenly a saint showed up and guided me to the right way. I asked, who are you? He said, I am the one to whom you are traveling. This happened twice.”
A person was coming to him from Bukhara through Kabul. His camel drowned while crossing the Attock river with all its loaded stuff. He wished that if his camel comes out from the river alive and loaded, I will pay the Niaz of the Shaykh (Niaz is a kind of charity whose reward is intended for someone else, specially a Shaykh or Prophet). With the grace of Allah, the camel came out. When that person came to the Shaykh and told him this miracle, the Shaykh asked him if he had paid the Niaz. He said yes, I have.
Legacy
His tarīqa and Fayd spread to the near and far. People would come to him to seek the love of Allah from every corner of the world. Many people including scholars came to him from all corners of India, from Persia and Transoxiana, from Turkish and Kurd areas and from the Arab world. Mawlana Khālid al-Baghdadi, who was a Kurd, came to him and received Khilafah within nine months. He spread the tarīqa to hundreds of thousands of people in the Middle East and Turkish nations.
Hadhrat Shah Ghulām Ali once said, “my Fayd has reached farthest countries, our Halqa (meaning gathering of the followers of his tariqa) is held in Makkah and Madinah Munawwara, similarly our Halqa is held in Baghdad, Rome and Maghreb; and (he said smilingly) Bukhara is like our ancestral home.”
He was the Mujaddid of 13th century of the Hijri calendar. A Mujaddid is the highest post of Awliya who revives the religion of Islam at the start of every century, and all the Awliya of that century get benefited from his Fayd (spiritual blessings).
Today, majority of the active brotherhoods in the Naqshbandi order trace their lineage to the Shaykh. Those in the Turkey and Iraq connect to him through Maulana Khalid Baghdadi, and those in the Persian countries and the Indian subcontinent through Hadhrat Hafiz Abu Saeed Faruqi. The Naqshbandi tariqah is the most spiritually alive tariqah today, and it is foretold by the Shaykhs of this tariqah that Imam Mahdi, may peace be upon him, will also belong to the noble tariqah of Naqshbandiyah.
Demise
He wished for Shahādah (martyrdom) but did not supplicate to God for this, as the Shahādah of his Shaykh Hadhrat Mirza brought immense suffering for the people (probably as a sign of Allah’s displeasure).
This great Imam and Qutb passed away to the eternal world on 22 Safar 1240 A.H. (October 1824) at the age of 84. He was buried next to his Shaykh in the Khānaqah Mazhariya in Delhi, India. At the time of death, he was holding famous book of Hadith Jāmi’ al-Tirmidhi on his noble chest. His funeral prayer was offered in the Jāmi’ mosque of Delhi, led by his chief khalifa Hadhrat Hafiz Abu Saeed and attended by thousands.
His Khulafa and Successor
He granted Ijāzah to many of his followers, most of them became prominent Sufi Shaykhs. Thirty eight names of his deputies are known and narrated in his biographies. His deputies spread to most of the Islamic world at the time, who spread the Naqshbandi tariqah in India, Arabia, Persia, Turkey and Africa. Some of the most prominent names among his Khulafa are listed below:
Hadhrat Hāfiz Shāh Abū Saeed Fārūqī Mujaddidi Naqshbandi, who was appointed by the Shaykh to be his successor in the khānaqah in Dehli. He lived around nine years after the Shaykh and trained thousands of followers after him. He died in 1250 A.H. and is buried in Khānaqah Mazhariya in Delhi.
Hadhrat Shāh Ahmad Saeed Fārūqī Mujaddidi, son of Shah Abū Saeed Faruqi, who received Khilafah from Shah Ghulām Ali, and succeeded him after the demise of his father. Due to his popularity in Indian Muslims and his leading role in the 1857 rebellion against the British colonialists, the government wanted to prosecute him, and so, he migrated to Madinah al-Munawwara in later part of his life where he died there in 1277 A.H.
Mawlānā Khālid al-Baghdādī Kurdi Shahrazuri (Baghdad, Iraq), died 1242 A.H. / 1827 C.E. He is the most well-known from his Khulafa, as he spread the Naqshbandi tariqah in the Middle East and Turkey and vast numbers of people including renowned scholars and eminent Shaykhs were initiated in the tariqah through him.
Hadhrat Shāh Raūf Ahmad Rāft Faruqi Mujaddidi Rāmpuri (Bhopal, India, d. 1253 A.H.)
Mawlana Bashārat-Allah Behrā’ichi
Hadhrat Mawlana Ghulām Mohiuddīn Qusoori (Qusoor, Pakistan, d. 1270 A.H.)
Mawlana Sayyid Ismāeel Madani (Madinah, Saudi Arabia)
Mawlana Shah Gul Muhammad Ghaznavi (Bukhara, Uzbekistan)
Mawlana Muhammad Shareef (Sirhind, India)
Mawlana Pīr Muhammad (Kashmir)
Mawlana Jān Muhammad Herati (Herat, Afghanistan)
Shaykh al-Haram Maulana Muhammad Jān (Makkah, d. 1266 A.H.)
Writings
Fifteen works of writing are attributed to the Shaykh, apart from two collections of Malfūzāt (transcribed sayings) written by his khulafa. His authored works include:
Maqāmāt-e-Mazharī (مقامات مظهري), the best and complete biography of his shaykh Mirza Mazhar Jān-e-Jānān, may Allah be pleased with him, written in Persian in around 1211 A.H.
Īdāh al-Tarīqat (ايضاح الطريقة), written in 1212 A.H., about Adhkar, terms and principles of the Naqshbandi tariqah. Persian text with Urdu translation here
Ahwāl-e-Buzurgān (احوال بزرگان), written after 1225 A.H. This is a biographical work with biographies of some great shaykhs.
Maqāmāt Mujaddid Alf Thāni (مقامات مجدد الف ثاني). This treatise contains description of the merits and high spiritual achievements of Imam Rabbani Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi, may Allah be pleased with him.
Tarīq Bay’āh wa Azkār
Tarīqah sharīfah Shāh-e-Naqshband
Ahwāl Shāh-e-Naqshband
Risālah Azkār
Risālah Murāqibāt
Radd Aetirāzāt, contains refutations of the defiance of Hadhrat Imam Rabbani by Shah Abdul Haqq Dehlavi, who later repented from his claims but some other people used his writings to refute Imam Rabbani Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi, may Allah be pleased with him.
Radd Mukhālifīn Hazrat Mujaddid
Risālah Mashghūliyah
Kamālāt Mazhari, authored in 1237 A.H. / 1821
Sulook Rāqiyah Naqshbandiyah
Makātīb Sharīfa, his 125 letters collected by his khalifa Hadhrat Shah Rauf Ahmad Raaft Mujaddidi, may Allah be pleased with him. This has been published multiple times.
His Malfūzāt were collected by two of his Khulafa. The first, called Durr al-Ma’ārif, was written by Hadhrat Shah Rauf Ahmad Raaft in 1231 A.H., and the second which contains Malfūzāt of forty days, was written by Khwaja Ghulām Mohiuddin Qusoori, may Allah be pleased with them both.
May Allah grant us a share from his blessings and make us follow his footsteps.
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Murshid e Kamil- Perfect Shaykh - Awarifu-i-Ma'arif by Shaykh Shahbuddin Suhrawardi RA

MURSHID-E-KAMIL
Shuyukhiat in 'Awarifu-l-Ma'arif of Shaykh Shahbuddin Suhrawardi (RA)
After the rank of being a prophet, no rank is higher than the being a deputy for a prophet, to call men, by the path of Muhammad, to God.
The word Shaykh, signifieth being a Khalifa; hence its degree is excellent, as, in respect of the Shaykhs of sufis, is in the hadith stated.
The Shaykh's purpose is to cleanse, from the rust of lust and of nature, the murld's heart, so that in it, by attractions and inclinations, may be reflected the rays of the beauty of unity and the glory of eternity; so that, by beholding them, his eyes may be attracted; and so that, thus, divine love may rest in his sincere heart.
The rules of being a Shaykh are fifteen.
The purifying of resolution and the searching for the cause.
First he should seek out of himself that the cause be not— The desire of precedence. „ „ being a Shaykh. „ „ being followed. wherein are born the lusts of sons of Adam ; this he should do, though he may see his own lust at rest and the fires of nature extinguished.
When he seeth some of the seekers, with sincerity of desire, turn to him, and from him seek guidance, hastily he should not be their director, but should delay till, with penitence, true submission, and supplication to God,he discovereth the truth of the state and with certainty knoweth what God's purpose is to him in regard to their charge.
If he see that the charge of the crowd of the seekers is trial, he knoweth caution to be necessary, and is engaged in comprehending the hidden cause.
If he see that God's purpose is that he should instruct the seekers, he followeth God's order.
The knowledge of capacity.
The Shaykh must regard the capacity of the murld. If, in him, he see capacity for treading the path of those near to God, he inviteth him with skill, and by elucidat¬ing the states of him who is near to God,
If he see that he has not much capacity for the path of the pious, he inviteth him by admonishing, by inciting, by instructing, and by mentioning paradise and hell.
The Shaykh urgeth the capable ones to deeds of the heart (murakiba, observance of mystery, distinguishing thoughts), and to pure devotion.
Thus, if he see the murld's welfare in abandoning the world's chattels, or in hold¬ing to them, he ordereth as may be suitable to his state.
Who acquireth not knowledge of the different kinds of capacity, and discrimina¬tion as to the forms of understanding, hath no true power over the murid.
Being pure (having no lot or part) in respect of the murid's property.
The Shaykh must show no greed for the property, or for the service, of the murid. With a gratification, he should not make vain his instructing and directing, which are the best of alms (for God).
When, by divine information or by true knowledge, he knoweth that, for the ge¬neral good, he should take the property, he may do so.
If the murid desire at once to give up his property, the Shaykh may accept: because, in return for it, he can give to the murid that state (for which he is fit) which is the cause of tranquillity of heart.
If he knoweth that the murid will look with regret at his property, he will allow him to spend a portion.
Once, one of Junid's murids wished to give up all his property. Junid refused saying:—
Keep what is sufficient and thereon subsist; the surplus, give. For, after the expending of all thy property, safe from the demands of thy desire, I shall not be.
Offering.
Delights of offering and of severing attachments are incumbent on the Shaykh, so that, by observing their effects, the sincerity, and the conviction of the murid may be greater; and the severing of attachments, easier; and the desire of celibacy, over¬powering.
By offering, becometh sifted the murid's suspicion as to the Shaykh's state, and, as to the truth of his sway.
According to necessity, he should distribute the excess among the poor.
Concordance of deed with word in invitation.
When the Shaykh wisheth to invite the murid to a practice, or to an abandonment, it is necessary that, in his own state, this (practice or abandonment) should be evident, so that, without suspicion, the murid may accept.
Upon persons, the mere word has no great effect.
According to the hadis the murid should choose fakr (poverty), which is the wealth of sufi,ism, and the condition of tarikat (the path to God), although to him, poverty and riches are, as 'Umar hath said, one.
Compassion for the weak.
When, in the murid, the Shaykh seeth weakness of resolution ; and knoweth that against lust and the abandoning of accustomed things, he hath no true resolution, he should display kindness.
To the limit of his power, he should abridge the austerities, so that the murid may not shun him ; and so that, in time, and by intercourse, he may gain kinship with fukara (fakirs).
Possibly, after resolution shall h ave been incited in him, he may gradually reach from the abyss of license (to disregard austerities) to the height of resolution.
Once one of the sons of favour (a rich man) joined the society of Ahmad Kalansi; and severed himself from the world.
In him, Ahmad found a weakness, whereupon, when a few dirhams were gained he used to purchase for him bread, round cake, roast meat, sweetmeat; and to say:—
" Out from the world's favour and from association therewith, this man has come; then fit it is to tread with him the path of compassion; and not to forbid him delights.
The purifying of speech.
Pure of the pollution of desire must be the Shaykh's speech, so that its effect upon the murid may be seen.
On the heart the effect of speech is like to seed: if the seed be bad, there is no fruit; iniquity of speech is in entering into, and associating with, desire.
Into speech desire falleth :—
either for attracting the hearts of hearers, which is unfit for the state of Shaykhs.
or from pride of himself on account of the beauty of his own speech, which (in the opinion of men of hakikat) is pure sin.
With the murid the Shaykh should winnow his speech from the pollution of desire ; should plant it in the heart's soil, and entrust it to God to be preserved from the bird of forgetfulness and from the power of shaitan.
On account of the pride of self, sincerity appeareth not save by observing the lights of God's excellence and the effects of His boundless favours,—in the splendour of which lights the glance of lust becometh dimmed ; and the darkness of pride, extin¬guished. Then in the buffeting of the waves of the ocean of perpetual bounty, he regardeth his own existence, much more his speech,—less than a drop.
Exalting the heart to God in the state of speech.
When the Shaykh wisheth to speak to the murid, he should turn his heart towards God, and from Him ask sense, that he may be theperfecter of time and the compre-hender of the welfare of the hearer's state ; that his tongue may be the speaker of God ; and that his speech may be true in rendering benefit.
Thus they say:— In the hearing of his own speech he was equal to the other hearers.
Although sooner than the spectators on the shore, the diver in the sea collecteth pearl-shells and bringeth with himself the pearl, yet, as soon as he issueth from the sea and openeth the shell, he is only equal to the spectators on the shore.
Speaking ambiguously.
When in the murid, the Shaykh seeth something detestable; and wisheth to admonish him thereto, so that he may strive to remove it, he should not speak fluently and conspicuously.
Nay, ambiguously he should cast the matter before the assembly, that to its object, its tenour may lead.
Thus if, in the murid's soul, he should see :—
a pride of his own deeds and states,
a claim to nearness (to God) and to perfection,
a crookedness and a turning from the path of firmness.
He should relate to the assembly, in respect of it, an hadis, or a tale, of Shaykhs ; and briefly should hint at the abomination, so that those present may be profited. In this way, counsel is nearest to courtesy and to hikmat.
Preserving the mysteries of the murid.
The Shaykh should preserve the mysteries of the murid, and not reveal his manifestations and miracles. By speaking to him in private, he should render them contemptible, saying :—
Although circumstances like these are the favour of God, yet, expecting and looking for them, is the cause of the murid's path being closed. In thanks for them, they should make return; from them, takeoff their glance; and, inobserving the Benefactor (God) through observing His favour, be engaged. Otherwise, in loss they remain.
Pardoning the murid's blunder.
If, in the murid, the Shaykh should see a defect in abandoning a service, or in neglecting a rule,-----it, he should forgive him ; and thereto by kindness, by courtesy, by indulgence, and by grace incite him.
Descending from (passing over) his own right.
Of the murid, the Shaykh should have no hope, although it is his right; and to his right, the keeping of the murid is a most important rule. But the Shaykh's expecta¬tion of it is not approved ; and his descending from his right is best.
Waki says :—
Once, in Egypt, with an assembly of fukara, I was in a masjid, where Abu Bakr VVirak stood before a pillar and prayed. I said to myself, when the Shaykh finisheth his prayer, I will salute him. When HP had returned the salam of the prayer, he came and preceded me in salutation. I said :—" Best it would have been if I had first stood in respect." The Shaykh said :—"I have never been bound with the expectation that any one should do me honouring."
The allowing of the murid's rights.
In sickness and in health, the Shaykh should not delay in allowing the rights of the companions.
The distributing of times in respect of khilvat (retirement) and of jilvat (rapid circular motions).
The Shaykh's time should not be plunged in intercourse with the people. His power of hal, his perfection, his tamkln, and his presence (with others) should not be the excuse. With perfection of hal, and of tamkin, Muhammad was not, all day, in men's society. For asking the aid of God's bounty, of mercy, he chose khilvat; for diffus¬ing the mercy on the people, he chose society. For the Shaykh is necessary a special kJiilvat, wherein he may be employed :
in portions of devotion.
in humbling himself and in supplicating God for his own sake and for others.
in asking aid so that his khilvat may be secure from being employed with people.
By the opposition of man's composition, displaying assiduity to God is difficult; and languor in deeds is expected, and at such times, it is proper that he should pass his time in society and thereby dispel that languor Again, through shauk and zauk, he may incline to khjlvat and to devotion ; men may be benefited by his nature ; and he may escape from languor.
The increasing of the works of supererogation (nawafil).
The boiling of his hal should not hinder him from repairing time with good deeds. For, with perfection of hal, assiduous in respect to nawafil, was Muhammad : — in the namaz-i-tahajjud, prayer of midnight. „ ,, chasht, prayer between sunrise and noon. „ „ zawal, prayer after noon. „ ruza,-i-tatawwu, fasting during good deeds. „ other nawafil. At night so long used he to stand in prayer that his auspicious feet became swollen.
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Maktubat Hazrat Arif Billah Haji Dost Muhammad Qandahari RA -Letter 16

حضرت عارف بالله حاجى دوست محمد قندهارى نقشبندى
مكتوبات
Letter 16 from the Maktubat of Haji Dost Muhammad Qandahari
Letter no. 16 from the Maktūbāt of Hazrat Khwaja Hājī Dost Muhammad Qandahāri Naqshbandi Mujaddidi, may Allah sanctify his soul.
Written to Khalifa Sher Muhammad Kulāchvi, about following the noble Shariah, and that the practice upon knowledge is necessary.
In the name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful.
All praise is to Allah who gave rise to the sun of Muhammadan Prophethood in the eternal orbit, and …..
My brother, my dear, my elder Molvi Sher Muhammad sāhib, may Allah the Exalted preserve him in Deen and Dunya, and may Allah the Exalted make him lover for His Being.
From the humble faqeer, naught, Dost Muhammad alias Hājī, Allah be the substitute of everything for him.
After the Salām, Sunnah of the Best of creations, it be clear that Al-Hamd-u-Lillah (all praise is for Allah) [this] faqeer along with all associates is in good health until the 7th [day] of Rabi al-Awwal. May Allah keep you protected as well and bestow upon you persistence and consistency on the Muhammadan Shariah. The request is that my brother! always be engaged in the Zikr (remembrance) of Haqq (God, lit. Truth), and remain mindful of Him. So much that ignorance from that Holy Excellency should not come even for a single moment. Because except this way, there is no other choice for the seekers of Haqq (God). You should strive hard in spreading the noble Nisbah (cognation) of the masters of the exalted Naqshbandi tariqa. Because the present time is the time of closeness to the Judgement-Day, and that of sedition and corruption. Know that it is exactly by the will of Allah the Exalted. The chief of the world [Prophet Muhammad], may Allah’s mercy be on him, says:
(Translation:) “One who makes the servants of Allah dear to Allah, Allah will make him dearer to His servants. And the one who made my Sunnah alive after it had died (became out of practice), for him is the reward of a hundred martyrs”.
The condition of Ijāzah (authorization), that is, the condition for propagation of the noble tariqa of Sufis is that:
Full persistence be achieved, externally and internally, upon the purified Mustafavi Shariah, on whose owner be peace and blessings. To the extent that there should not be even a bit of crossing the limits of Shariah, whenever possible.
Specially, offer the five prayers in congregation [and] in first time, and be engaged in Zikr and Muraqibah (meditation) all the time.
Talk less, eat less, and interact less with the people.
Attribute yourself with Repentance, Patience, Reliance, Contentment, Asceticism, Gratitude, Acceptance, Satisfaction and Fear.
Do not consider the Kashf and Karāmāt (miraculous visions and powers) as the commons do.
Remain hopeless from your self and Māsiwā (everything other than Allah).
Consider the poverty and hunger as great favors.
Do not have any kind of greed in the possessions of [your] disciples.
Do not be eager to [acquire] popularity or rejection by the creations (people).
Run away from the wealth and the wealthy.
Avoid doing backbiting and condemnation of people; do not contest them neither joke with them; overlook their slips.
Do not be unafraid of the evils of Nafs (lower self) and the cursed Satan until the last breath.
Consider yourself naught among all the creations.
Do not be distressed in the search for food and livelihood. Because anything that is destined will necessarily reach you from Allah the Exalted.
Do not take the knowledge and practice and useless flawed talks a medium for the creations and for acquiring Dunya (earthly concerns), like the commons and the non-practicing scholars [do].
Likewise, know that the religious and worldly bliss lies in the knowledge and the practice, provided that these two are only for [seeking] the pleasure of Allah the Exalted, and are in complete conformance with [the teachings of] the beloved of God Muhammad the Chosen, peace be upon him. If a person be a scholar of the sayings and practices and beliefs of (سبدنا محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم, yet does not practice [according to them], is not a scholar in true sense. As comes in a Hadith:
(Translation:) “Hazrat Abi Darda’ relates from the Chief of the World, peace be upon him, that he said: a person who does not act upon his knowledge is not a scholar”.
والسلام
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Maktubat Shaykh Haji Dost Muhammad Qandahari RA (1801-1868)

مكتوبات حضرت شيخ حاجى دوست محمد قندهارى
Shaykh Haji Dost Muhammad Qandahari and the Wahhabi sect
Excerpt from letter 30 of the Maktubat of Hāji Dost Muhammad Qandahāri Naqshbandi (1801-1868), a great Naqshbandi master of India in the 19th century
Written to Molvi Abdullāh, advising him to refrain from the beliefs of the Wahhabi sect
It has come to knowledge through the visitors that Molvi Ghiyās ad-Dīn believes in the issues of the Wahhabi sect and teaches these issues to the people. Therefore it is emphasized to you in writing that abhor the beliefs of the Wahhabis and loathe by heart the Ismāīli Wahhabi sect [1]. To maintain the right doctrine and to do the (righteous) acts, the books written by the pious ancesters the Ahl as-Sunnāt wal-Jamā’ah are sufficient for us. These books should be under your consideration, do not read the writings of the Wahhabi sect and refrain from their beliefs. If you wish to observe the powerful effect of our Great Masters in yourself, may Allah best sanctify their secrets , then you should follow your masters in all issues, practical or doctrinal, apparent or inner. Allah willing, you will get the fruit of the Reality and Cognition of the Exalted Haqq. Just say: Allah bass Māsiwā Abas wa Hawas wan-Qati’ alaih in-Nafs (Allah is sufficient, everything else is vain and lust, cut-off youself from them).
That’s all.
And Salām is the best ending!
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Shaykh Sayyid Adam Bannuri Naqshbandi RA

حضرت سيد ادم بنورى نقشبندى
Sayyid Adam Bannuri: a great wali in the Naqshbandi Order
Ḥaḍrat Sayyid Ādam Ḥusainī Bannūrī quddisa-sirruhū was one of the well known deputies of Imām Rabbānī Shaykh Aḥmad Fārūqī Sirhindī. His spiritual legacy still lives on in the form of many active branches of his Order spread across the world.
He first became a disciple of Ḥājī Khiḍr Afghān who was a deputy of Imān Rabbānī, and learned the dhikr from him. Later, by the permissionof Ḥājī Khiḍr, he entered the service of Imām Rabbānī and received tawwajuh and training in the Naqshbandi Order. Within months, he was granted deputyship and ordered to teach this noble Path to the new seekers.
He was known for his steadfastness on following the noble Sunnah and curbing the anti-Sunnah acts (Bidʿah). His generosity was unparalleled, and every poor and rich, young and old was offered equal free food at his place.
He had numerous followers and his spiritual order spread far and wide within his lifetime. According to Shaykh Badruddīn Sirhindī, he had approximately one hundred deputies and close to one hundred thousand disciples [2]. Later, he went for pilgrimage (Hajj) and visited the noble city of Madinah, where he was ordered by the Best of Creations, the Final Prophet ṣall-Allāhu ʿalaihi wa-sallam, to stay in that noble city. Thus he settled there, and died there on 13 Shawwāl 1054 AH and was buried very close to the tomb of Sayyidunā ʿUthmān al-Ghanī raḍiy-Allāhu ʿanhu, such that the shadow of the tomb would fall over his grave. [2]
A list of deputies of Sayyid Ādam Bannūrī follows.
Sayyid Mīr ʿAlīmullāh (d. 1081 AH) [1]
Shaykh Sulṭān [1]
Ḥājī ʿAbdullāh Kohātī [1]
Ḥājī Yār Muḥammad Pāīnī (near Kābul) [1]
Shaykh Saʿdī Lāhorī [1]
Ḥāfiẓ Saʿdullāh Wazīrābādī [1]
Shaykh Ummīd Alī [1]
Shaykh Nūr [1]
Shaykh Fatiḥ Muḥammad [1]
Shaykh ʿUthmān Shāhjahānpurī [1]
Ḥājī Sharīf [1]
Shaykh Bāyazīd [1]
Khwāja Muḥammad Amīn Makkī [1]
The spiritual order of Sayyid Ādam Bannūrī is still active and many of its branches are widespread. Some of the most notable saints of his order are the following:
Shāh Waliyullāh Muḥaddith Dahlawī, the great Indian Islamic scholar and author
Shāh Faqīrullāh Alawī Shikārpurī, (Shikārpur, Sindh), author of many Sufi books
Sayyid Muḥammad Rāshid alias Rozay Dhanī, Sindh

Shaykh Muhammad Usman Damani Naqshbandi Mujaddidi ( d.1897)

Hadhrat Shaykh Muhammad Usman Damani Naqshbandi Mujaddidi (d.1897), may Allah sanctify his soul, was one of the greatest Naqshbandi shaykhs and spiritual successor to Khwaja Dost Muhammad Qandahari (d.1868), may Allah sanctify his soul, who established the noble khanqah Musa Zai Sharif, in district D.I. Khan, Pakistan.
Hazrat Khwaja Muhammad Usman Damani
The noble grave of Hazrat Khwaja Muhammad Usman Damani Naqshbandi, at khanqah Musa Zai Sharif (Pakistan)
He was born in 1244 AH (1828/1829 C.E) at Luni, a village in tehsil Kulachi, district Dera Ismail Khan, now in Pakistan. He was son of Mawlana Muhammad Musa Jan, son of Mulla Ahmad Jan, son of Mulla Abdul-Haleem, son of Mulla Abdul-Karim, son of Mulla Qazi Shamsuddin. He was from the Achakzai branch of the Durrani tribe of Afghans. His grandfather Qazi Shamsuddin was a Qazi (Judge) of Qandahar during the times of Ahmad Shah Abdali.
His father passed away when he was only five or six years old, leaving behind him and his younger brother Mawlana Muhammad Saeed. His maternal uncle Mawlana Nizamuddin took the guardianship of the two brothers and educated them in Islamic sciences.
He was granted absolute authority in eight Sufi orders by his shaykh Hazrat Khwaja Dost Muhammad Qandahari.
The chief tariqa Naqshbandī-Mujaddidī, founded by the Great Mujaddid Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (971-1034 AH, Sirhind)
Qādrī (Qādriyyah), founded by Ghaws al-A’zam Shaykh Abd al-Qadir al-Jīlanī (470–561 AH, Baghdad)
Chishtī (Chishtiyyah), founded by Khwaja Mu’īn ad-Dīn Hasan Chishtī Ajmerī (d.627 AH, Ajmer)
Suhrawardī (Suhrawardiyyah), founded by Khwaja Umar Ibn Muhammad Shihabuddīn Suhrawardī (539-632 AH)
Kubravī (Kubrawiyyah), founded by Khwaja Najmuddīn Ibn Umar al-Kubra (540-618 AH, Khwarazm)
Madārī (Madāriyyah), founded by Khwaja Badee’uddīn Shah al-Madar
Qalandarī (Qalandariyyah), founded by Khwaja Najmuddīn Qalandar Ibn Nizam al-Ghaznavī
Shattārī (Shattāriyyah), founded by Shaykh Abdullah Shattar (d. 1406 CE)
The complete chains of these orders are listed in biographical works such as Majmua Fawaed Usmaniya and other books. The golden chain of the Naqshbandi order goes to Imam Rabbanī Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindī as follows:
Hazrat Khwājā Muhammad Usmān Dāmānī
Hazrat Khwājā Dost Muhammad Qandahārī
Hazrat Shāh Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidī Fārūqī
Hazrat Shāh Abū Saeed Mujaddidī Fārūqī
Hazrat Shāh Ghulām Alī Dehlavī
Hazrat Mirzā Mazhar Jān-e-Jānān
Hazrat Sayyid Noor Muhammad Badāyūnī
Hazrat Hāfiz Muhammad Mohsin Dehlavī
Hazrat Khwājā Saif ad-Dīn Sirhindī
Hazrat Khwājā Muhammad Ma’soom Sirhindī
Hazrat Imām Rabbānī Mujaddid Alf Sānī Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindī Fārūqī
Miracles and Visions
Once, a disciple of him Mawlānā Hussain Alī was in doubt whether the Awliyā (saints) possess the knowledge of the Unseen or not, and that what kind of knowledge of Unseen do they possess and in what matter? Thinking this, he went to Shaykh Dāmānī’s presence who was talking to some Pashtuns in Pashto language, and sat behind those people. The venerable Shaykh suddenly turned to him and said in Persian: “Molvī Sāhab! The Awliyā know every thing but it is not allowed for them to unveil it”.
Similarly, once Mawlānā Hussain Alī who doubted the Awliyā’s possession of the knowledge of Unseen, was present in his presence. The venerable Shaykh said to him:
“Molvī Sāhab! Go to your home, then when you come back, whatever happened during that time, I will tell you everything exactly in full detail. You will not find any detail as wrong.”
Hadhrat Shaykh Dāmānī used to eat very little. Once during a journey of a month, he ate only half a kilogram of cereal food. On the other hand, he was quite healthy and overweight. People used to wonder about this.
Once Hazrat Shaykh took out hundred rupees (large coins) from his pocket and gave them to his servant Noor Alam Khān to buy lambs for the Langar (free food for the visitors and guests of khanqah). Noor Alam wondered how did the Shaykh take out hundred coins from his small pocket? How does he take out money from his pocket for every necessity at the khāniqāh sharif, having no visible source of income, and yet the money doesn’t end? Hazrat Shaykh got informed over his thoughts and replied: “Faqir’s (referring to himself) pocket is an Afghan sack, it will not end up at least until my life.”
He departed to the hereafter in the morning of Tuesday, 22 Shaban 1314 AH (26 January 1897). He was reciting the Kalima Tayyiba until the last breath. His Janaza prayer was led by his son Hadhrat Shaykh Muhammad Sirāj ad-Din, attended by thousands of his followers and lovers. He was buried besides the noble grave of his shaykh, at the noble shrine of Musa Zai Sharif.
His deputies
Shaykh Dāmānī awarded deputyship to more than 30 of his qualified disciples. Some of those blessed names are listed below.
His eldest son and successor, Hadhrat Shaykh Muhammad Sirāj ad-Dīn Naqshbandī Mujaddidī
Hadhrat Mawlānā Sayyid Laal Shāh Hamdānī Bilāwalī
Mawlānā Mahmood Shirāzī
Shaykh Fāzil Awān
Mawlānā Muhammad Rasool Laoon Khurāsānī (died on Tuesday 29 Dhu al-Hijja 1314 AH / 1897)
Hāfiz Sayyid Ahmad Alī Dehlavī (died on Sunday 2 Ramadān 1300 AH)
Mawlānā Sayyid Akbar Alī Dehlavī, author of Majmua Fawāed Usmānia (Persian)
Mawlānā Noor Khān Awān Chakrālvī
Mawlānā Muhammad Hāshim Baghārvī (died Sunday 27 Rajab 1313 AH / 1896)
Khwājā Mairā Qalandar, Pashin
Sayyid Amīr Shāh Hamdānī Bilāwalī
Mawlānā Hussain Alī
Mawlānā Beg Muhammad Khurāsānī
Qāzi Abd ar-Rasool Angvī
Mawlānā Meher Muhammad Awān Angvī
Sayyid Muhammad Shāh Hamdānī Bilāwalī, nephew of Sayyid La’al Shāh Hamdānī
The next in the Naqshbandī Mujaddidī Tāhirī spiritual golden chain is Shaykh Muhammad Sirāj-ud-Dīn Naqshbandī.     Courtesy Mohammad Mojaddadi Facebook

Naqshbandi Dhikr

Naqshbandi Dhikr
The Qalb (heart) is located two finger-widths below the left nipple in the chest, somewhat oriented towards the side. When the shaykh teaches this lesson to a new seeker, he places his right index finger on this place and says “Allāh Allāh Allāh”, while exerting his spiritual Tawajjuh on his heart (this method is only for men, women are taught verbally).
The method of Zikr is this: the disciple, after being taught this lesson by the master, starts proclaiming the Personal Name of God, Allāh Allāh Allāh, in his heart by way of meditation. The tongue is not used in this method, rather it is recommended to touch it to the upper side of mouth to keep it silent. The seeker should clear the mind of all unnecessary thoughts and should keep busy in this Zikr at all times, even during the work.
Initially, it might be hard to do this Zikr at all times due to external distractions. But slowly, by practice and by the Shaykh’s blessings, the heart becomes used to this Zikr so much that no 
further effort is required to do the Zikr. It becomes automated like breath
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Mohammad Mojadiddi's photo.

Khwaja Muhammad Baqi Billah Berang Naqshbandi Ahrari Dehlawi RA


Hadhrat Khwāja Muhammad Bāqī Billāh Berang Naqshbandī Ahrārī Dihlawī quddisa sirruhū (may his secret be sanctified) was a great Sufi master of the Naqshbandī-Ahrārī Sufi order, who established and propagated the Naqshbandī order in India.
He was born in Kābul (Afghanistan) in 971 or 972 AH. Some sources mention his date of birth to be 5 Zul-Hijjah. His father Qāzī Abd as-Salām Samarqandī was a pious saint and had Turkish ancestry, while his mother was a noble Sayyida. His father lived in Samarqand and later migrated to Kabul, where the venerable Khwāja was born. He was named by his parents “Muhammad al-Bāqī” and later became popular with the name “Bāqī Billāh”. His takhallus (pen name) was Berang (which literally means colorless or transparent).
He started his education with Mawlānā Sādiq Halwāī, and later traveled with him from Kābul to Māwarannahr (Transoxiana) and continued his education there.
For spiritual training, he accompanied several of the masters of Sufism in many places, including Māwarannahr, Afghanistan, Kashmīr, and India. Finally, he received the spiritual secret from Hadhrat Khwāja Muhammad Khwājagī Amkanagī. He later traveled to India and stayed for one year in Lahore, and then settled in Delhi.
The venerable Khwāja Bāqī Billāh had extreme humbleness and he never considered himself better than anyone. One notable display of his humbleness is reported as follows. A young person used to live in the neighborhood of Khwāja. He was very immoral and debauch person who often showed mischief and wickedness. Hadhrat Khwāja would tolerate his mischievous behavior with utmost patience. His murid Khwāja Hasām ad-Dīn however could not be so patient, and one day complained to the police inspector who arrested that young person and sent him to the prison. When Khwāja Bāqī Billāh heard about it, he was annoyed with Khwāja Hasām ad-Dīn and asked him why he had complained? Khwāja Hasām ad-Dīn replied: Shaykh! He is a very immoral and wicked person; his wickedness had exceeded the limits. On hearing this reply, Hadhrat Khwāja Bāqī Billāh made a cold sigh and said: “Yes brother! You consider yourself pious, saintly and good folk, and that is why that person seemed to you immoral and wicked. I do not see myself in any way better and different to him.” After this, he freed that person from the prison, who was ashamed and became pious and well-behaved.
The noble Khwāja was a firm follower of the Ahl as-Sunnah creed and often emphasized this in his teachings. While explaining the meanings of Sūrah al-Fātiha, he describes the meaning of Sirāt al-Mustaqīm (the straight path) in the following words:
“It is a consensus of the truthful and the qualified researchers that the straight path [Sirāt al-Mustaqīm] is the path of Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamā’ah.”
The venerable Khwāja passed away on Saturday 25 Jumādā al-Akhira 1012 AH (29 November 1603) before sunset, at the age of forty years. He was buried on the next day the 26th of Jumādā al-Akhira. His final resting place is a Sufi shrine in Delhi, visited by thousands of his followers and lovers.
Contents [hide]
1 Descendents and deputies
2 Legacy
3 References
Descendents and deputies
Hadhrat Khwāja Bāqī Billāh quddisa sirruhu married with two women and had two sons, one from each of them. His first wife was sister of Muhammad Qalīj Khān Andajānī (d. 1023 AH) who was a reputed official during the Akbar’s rule and used to teach Fiqh, Hadīth and Tafsīr. His second wife was possibly sister of Muhammad Sādiq Kashmīrī (or Kishmī).
When the venerable Khwāja passed away in 1012 AH, he left behind his noble mother, his two wives, and two sons who were only about two years old. His deputy Khwāja Hasām ad-Dīn Ahmad took the responsibility of the family and raised the children.
His elder son Khwāja Ubaid-Allāh was born on 1st Rabī’ al-Awwal 1010 AH and passed away on 18 Jumādā al-Akhirah 1073 AH. He is usually referred to as “Khwāja Kalān”, meaning the elder khwāja. Some pious person saw in a dream that a son will be born to the venerable Khwāja and will be named after the name of Khwāja Ubaid-Allāh Ahrār quddisa sirruhu. Thus when he was born, he was named Ubaid-Allāh.
The venerable Khwāja’s younger son Khwāja Abd-Allāh was born on 6th Rajab 1010 AH and was four months younger than his brother. He is usually called “Khwāja Khurd”, meaning the younger khwāja. When he reached adulthood, he entered the service of Imām Rabbānī Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindī and received the spiritual mentoring and was awarded deputyship by Imām Rabbānī. He passed away on 25 Jumādā al-Awwal 1074 AH.
Among the deputies of the venerable Khwāja is the sun of spirituality and the founder of the Mujaddidī order, Imām Rabbānī Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindī Fāruqī radiy-Allāhu anhu, from whom the sacred Naqshbandi order spread to the whole world. The names of his known deputies are the following:
Imām Rabbāni Mujaddid Alf-i Sāni Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi Fāruqi (1034 AH)
Shaykh Tāj ad-Dīn Usmānī Sanbhalī (1051 AH)
Khwāja Hasām ad-Dīn Ahmad (born in 977 AH, died on 1st Safar 1043 AH, buried in Delhi)
Shaykh Ilāh-Dād Dihlawī (died on 23rd Sha’ban 1051 AH, buried in Delhi)
Shaykh Usmān Jālandharī
Shaykha Dawlat, wife of one of his murids. She was given permission to teach the Naqshbandī Zikr to women.
Legacy
The venerable Khwāja Bāqī Billāh was an excellent poet and has left many small and large poems and verses. Most of his poetry is in the style of Masnavī. He used the takhallus (pen name) Berang.
His malfūzāt (speeches) were transcribed and collected by one of his beloved disciples, who intentionally did not mention his name. However, he used the pen name Rushdī and is referred to by the biographers as Mawlānā Rushdī. He also described some of the important life events of the venerable Khwāja.
The maktūbāt (letters) of the venerable Khwāja were collected and eighty seven of them are available, called Ruq’āt. He also wrote short essays which are included in the collection “Kulliyāt-i Bāqī Billāh” and listed below:
Haqīqat-i Namāz (the reality of salvh)
Mukhtasir Bayān-i Tawhīd (short description of Tawhīd)
Ma’nā A’ūz (meaning of the verse A’ūzu Billāh)
Tafsīr of Bismillāh and Sūrah al-Fātiha
Tafsīr of Surah ash-Shams
Tafsīr of Surah al-Ikhlās
Tafsīr of Surah al-Falaq
Tafsīr of Surah an-Nās
Sharh-i Rubā’iyāt alias Silsilat al-Ahrār, written in 1007 AH
The next in the Naqshbandī Mujaddidī Tāhirī spiritual golden chain is Imām Rabbānī Mujaddid Alf-i Sānī Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindī.
References
Hadhrāt al-Quds, by Shaykh Badr ad-Dīn Sirhindī, Urdu translation by Hāfiz Muhammad Ashraf Naqshbandī, published by Qādrī Rizwī Kutubkhāna, Lahore, 2010.
Zubdat al-Maqāmāt, by Khwāja Muhammad Hāshim Kishmī
Bāqiyāt-i Bāqī (Urdu), by Dr. Ghulām Mustafā Khān Naqshbandī
Tazkirah Khwāja Bāqī Billāh (Urdu), by Mawlānā Nasīm Ahmad Farīdī Amrohī, published from Lucknow, India, 1986.
Mashāikh-i Turuq-i Arba’a (Persian), by Khwāja Bāqī Billāh Naqshbandī, published by Dr. Ghulām Mustafā Khān Naqshbandī, 1969.
Kulliyāt-i Bāqī Billāh (collection of poetry, speeches and letters, etc.) in Persian, by Mawlānā 
Abul-Hasan Zaid Fārūqī Mujaddidī, published from Lahore, Pakistan.
Courtesy Mohamad Mojadadi Facebook

The Mujaddadi Stations in the Naqshbandi Sufi Tariqah

The Mujaddidī stations in The Naqshbandī tareqat
The Naqshbandī Path ends at the Angelic Sainthood. The stations mentioned from here on are all additions to the journey by Imām-i Rabbānī Shaykh Ahmad Fārūqī Sirhindī raḍiyAllāhu ʿanhu. These spiritual stations are not found in any other Sufi order, past or present. The only way to achieve these sublime stations prior to the Mujaddidī Path was by the grace of the Almighty. There was no particular method to journey through these stations. However, Allāh Almighty opened the door of these exalted stations to the believers through our master The Great Mujaddid.
Shaykh Qāzī Muhammad Ṣadruddīn Naqshbandī Mujaddidī writes in one of his letters addressed to Mawlānā Abd al-Ghafūr Abbāsī Madanī that the Mujaddidī Stations are taught to the seeker directly by Imām-i Rabbānī the Great Mujaddid Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindī, and the better way is to go to his noble tomb and meditate there to receive the Fayz of these stations. He also states that other shaykhs train their disciples in these stations only as a tradition. He states this by reference of a book Manāqib-i Ahmadiya, biography of Shāh Ahmad Saʿīd Mujaddidī Madanī. [Ḥayāt-i Ṣadriya (Urdu) by Mawlānā Abd ul-Dāim Dāim]
All the previous lessons were related to the perfections and excellences of walāyah (sainthood), the coming lessons are related to the perfections and excellences of nabuwwah (prophethood). According to the majority of Gnostics, nabuwwah is superior to walāyah, and thus the perfections of nabuwwah are superior to those of walāyah. The perfections of nabuwwah are specific to the prophets only. However, the grace of the Almighty grants them to whomever he wills, and the awliyā acquire these perfections to a much lower level than the prophets. The proof of the fact that awliyāʼ can acquire perfections of prophethood is the following Ḥadīth:
“The Messenger of Allāh, ṣallAllāhu ʻalayhi waSallam, said: If there was to be a prophet after me, it would have been ʻUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb.” [Jāmiʻ Tirmidhī]
Courtesy: Mohammad Mojaddadi Facebook

Superiority of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq over other Sahabah

Superiority of Abu Bakr Siddiq over Sahabah
It is a collective agreement [Ijmāʻ] oS the scholars of AhS as-Sunnah wal-Jamāʻh that the greatest person in this Ummah is Abū Bakr, then ʿUmar, then ʿUs̱mān and then ʿAlī, radiyAllahu anhum. The greatest Sufi masters have also affirmed this tenet of the Sunnī creed. Particularly, the Naqshbandī masters hold this belief firmly, not only based on the authentic narrations, but also by their Kashf.
Regarding the superiority of Sayyidinā Abū-Bakr, it is also a belief of Sunni Muslims that he is the best human being after the prophets.
There are numerous scholarly proofs regarding this core tenet of Ahl-us-Sunnah, including many Sahīh Hadīths and their interpretations by the Imāms of jurisprudence and creed. Repeating those arguments is not necessary here. Rather, I will emphasize on the quotes of the luminary Sufi masters who have affirmed this belief. This is in response to some Sufis who believe in the contrary and hold Imām Alī to be better than Abū-Bakr.
On the other hand, this post does not in any way show disrespect or diminishing of the dignity of our master Imām ʻAlī ibn Abī Tālib, who is the beloved of every seeker of the spiritual paths. No one can ever diminish his lofty status in the eyes of his lovers. Not only him, but even his sons, grandsons and great-grandsons are pupils of the eyes of true Muslims.
The master of all Sufis, the master of the Muslim nation, the center of sainthood, Imām ʻAlī ibn Abī Tālib radiyAllāhu ʻanhu himself has declared the superiority of Abū-Bakr over all others. He said the following words in a public gathering:
“Indeed Abū-Bakr and ʻUmar are the greatest in this nation.”
This is reported by Imām Dhahabī and quoted by Imām Rabbānī in his Maktūbāt. Imām Dhahabī also said that more than eighty narrators have narrated this from Imām ʻAlī.
Imām Rabbānī also quotes the following through Imām Dhahabī:
“I have been informed that some people consider me greater than these two [Abū-Bakr and ʻUmar]. Thus, however considers me greater than them, he is a liar and his punishment is the same as for a liar.” [Maktūbāt, volume 1, letter 266]
The light of the Ahl al-Bait our master Imām Muḥammad al-Bāqir (d.114H/733) alaihi as-Salām said in this regard:
“Whoever did not recognize the superiority of Abū Bakr and ʿUmar radiyAllāhu anhumā, he is ignorant of the Sunnah.” [Hilyat al-Awliyā]
Imām Ghazālī (d.505H/1111) writes in his magnum opus Iḥyā ʿUlūm ad-Dīn:
“And the best of the people after the Prophet sallAllāhu ʻalaihi waSallam is Abū Bakr, then ʿUmar, then ʿUs̱mān, then ʿAlī (radiyAllāhu ʻanhum).”
The head of the Awliyā, the greatest Ghawth and founder of the Qādirī Order, Sayyidinā Ghawth al-Aʿzam Sayyid ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (d.561H/1166) radiyAllāhu ʻanhu writes:
“The greatest among the four (caliphs) is Abū Bakr, then ʿUmar, then ʿUs̱mān, then ʿAlī radiyAllāhu ʻanhum.” [Ghunyat at-Tālibīn]
The great Sufi theologian, called The Greatest Shaikh [Shaikh al-Akbar], Muḥy ad-Dīn Ibn ʿArabī (d.638H/1240) quddisa sirruhu writes:
“Know that there is none in the Nation of Muḥammad sallAllāhu ʻalaihi waSallam who is superior than Abū Bakr, save ʿĪsā ʻalaihi as-Salām.” [Futūhāt Ibn ʻArabī]
Khwāja Muhammad Pārsā was one of the renowned deputies of the founder of the Naqshbandi Order Khwāja Muhammad Bahā ad-Dīn Naqshband Bukhārī. He writes in his book Kalimāt Qudsia:
“Amīr al-Muʼminīn ʻAlī, after His Prophethood (the prophet ʻalaihi as-salām), also received spiritual training from the caliphs of the Prophet who preceded him (Abū-Bakr, ʻUmar and ʻUthmān)”. [Kalimāt Qudsia]
The founder of the Mujaddidī Order Sayyidinā Imām Rabbānī Shaikh Aḥmad Sirhindī radiyAllāhu ʻanhu writes in the Maktūbāt:
“And the absolute caliph after the Seal of the Messengers ʿalaihi wa ʿalā ālihiṣ-ṣalātu was-salām is Ḥaḍrat Abū Bakr radiyAllāhu ʻanhu, after him is Ḥaḍrat ʿUmar radiyAllāhu ʻanhu, after him is ʿUs̱mān Dhun-Nūrain radiyAllāhu ʻanhu, after him is ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib radiyAllāhu ʻanhu. Their superiority is on the order of their caliphate.” [Maktūbāt, volume 2]
Imām Rabbānī considers this creed to be one of the defining characteristics of Ahl-us-Sunnah:
“The person who considers Hazrat Amīr (Imām ʻAlī) greater than Abū-Bakr, leaves the fold of Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jamāʻh.” [Maktūbāt, volume 1, letter 202]
Some Sufi masters even consider it a major sin to consider Sayyidinā ʿAlī superior than Abū Bakr radiyAllāhu ʻanhumā. Such is the creed of the great Naqshbandi scholar and author Shāh Faqīrullāh ʿAlawī Shikārpurī (d.1195H/1781), who writes:
“To call Ḥaḍrat ʿAlī radiyAllāhu ʻanhu superior than Ḥaḍrat Abū Bakr and Ḥaḍrat ʿUmar radiyAllāhu ʻanhumā is also a major sin [Kabāʾir adh-Dhunūb].” [Qutb al-Irshād]
In the light of these clear teachings of our masters, it is obligatory for a seeker to hold on firmly to this belief of Sunni Islam, together with extreme love and sincerity of the Ahl al-Bayt, which is also one of the core tenets of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamāʻh.