Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education

The Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education (NFIE) is a non-profit, tax exempt, religious and educational organization dedicated to serve Islam with a special focus on Tasawwuf(Sufism),

Thursday, December 17, 2009

Shaykh ul Islam Sayyid Muhammad Madni Ashrafi al-Jilani

 SYED ASHRAF JAHANGIR SIMNANI R.A kichocha sharif Muhammad Madani Miyan Ashrafee al-Jilani From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Muhammad Madani Miya Ashrafi al-Jilani is Chief caretaker (Sajjada Nasheen) of Makhdoom al Millat Muhaddith al A'zam al Hind (Rahm). His Silsila is Known as Ashrafia Silsila. He is a Sufi Scholar of Kichhocha Sharif U.P India. He extensively visits foreign countries in order to propagate Islam.He has written books on various topics of Islam, which have been published at various times during the last thirty five years. Some of the books authored by him are listed below : Islam Ka Tassawure Ila Aur Maududi Sahib Din Aur Iqamate Din Masila Hazir O Nazir Islamic Law Khutbate Bartaniya Islam Ka Nazriyae Ibadat Aur Maududi Sahib Farizae Dawat O Tabligh Video Aur TV Ka Shari Isatamal Tafhim al-Hadith Sarrah Mhiskat Sharif Islam Ka Nazriyae Khatme Nabuwwat Aur Tehzirun Nas Kanz al-Iman Aur Digar Tarazum-e-Quran Ka Taqably Mutalia Asri Takaze Kitabatun Niswa Muhabbate Rasul Ruhe Iman Rasool-e-Akram Kai Tashreehi Iktiyaaraat Islam Ka Nazriyae Ibadat Khutbate Hyderabad Roohai Namaz Sharhe Hadeese Jibreel Tafheem al-Hadees - Sharhe Shikwa He was also the architect in publishing Ma'ariful Qur'an which is the translation of the Qur'an al-kareem into Urdu by Muhaddith al-Azam al-Hind Rehmatullahi alaih. This translation was published along with notes in Gujrati and Hindi languages. He has written numerous Naats. When he first started writing naats he sent some of his work for perusal to the Indian poet Shafiq Jaonpuri who after reading his work replied that "poetry this complete and comprehensive does not require rectification or amendment." He writes poetry under the pseudonym of Akhtar and a compilation of his work was made and published in the sub-continent titled 'Guldasta '. Pilgrimage His first visit to perform hajj took place in 1973 with his mother, wife, sister, younger brother Ghazi al-Millat Sayyad Muhammad Hashmi Miya Ashrafi al-Jilani, and nephew Sayyad Jahangir Ashraf. He has also visited the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem as well as shrines of the Ahl al Bayt, Sahaba-al-Kiram, Sufiya al-Kiram, Awliya Allah in Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Syria, Pakistan and India and throughout the Middle East & Asia in order to pay his respect and to obtain their blessings.Shaykh al-Islam has recently just completed another Hajj (2004/2005) - one of many. A mureed has written a personal account of his journey to Mecca and Medina. Titles: He acquired the title of Shaykh al-Islam circa 1974 when the Ulema of India started addressing him as such. Among the Ulema present at the time were Mufti-e-Azam al-Hind Mawlana Mustapha Raza Khan Rehmatullahi 'ta'ala alaih of Bareilly Shareef son of Ahmad Raza Khan; and Hadrat's Pir-o-Murshid - Shaykh al-Mashaykh, Mawlana Sayyad Mukhtar Ashraf 'Sarkar-e-Kalan' Rehmatullahi alaih. He was first addressed as Raees al-Muhaqiqin by His Holiness 'Gazzali-e-Doaran' Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Sayyed Ahmad Saeed Kazmi Rehmatullahi ta'ala alaih of Pakistan after he had sent for his perusal a fatwa on the Islamic use of television & video. Gazzali-e-Doaran Sayyad Ahmad Saeed Kazmi Rehmatullahi ta'ala alaih was so pleased with his ruling and the way that he had dealt with this subject that he addressed him as 'Raees-ul Muhaqiqin'. A letter confirming this was published in the monthly journal 'Al-Ashraf ' in Karachi in 1986. Video Lecture : Hub e Rasul (saws)-URDU

Wednesday, December 16, 2009

Dr.Muhammad Masud Ahmed Naqshbandi Mujaddadi Mazhari (r.a)

Fall 2008 Issue of Sufi Illuminations Journal is dedicated to Professor Dr. Mohammad Masud Ahmad Naqshbandi (r.a).

Dedication to Dr. Muhammad Masud Ahmed (ra) (d. 28 April 2008 in Karachi)

Arthur F. Buehler

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Masud Ahmed (may Allah preserve his inner heart) was born in Delhi in 1930, and acquired his early education from his father, Mufti Muhammad Mazharullah (rahmatullah alayhi d. 1966), before attending Madrasa-yi Alia and then Oriental College, both located in Delhi.
He migrated from India to Pakistan in 1948, where he continued his education at Punjab University ( Lahore) and at Sindh University, Hyderabad, Sindh. Graduating with honours for his M.A. and M.Ed. at Sindh University, Dr. Masud Ahmed finished a Ph.D. dissertation on "Quranic translations and exegesis in Urdu" in 1971, supervised by the renown scholar and sufi shaykh, Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Khan (rahmatullah alayhi).
After this, Dr. Masud Ahmed continued researching the founder of the Barelvi school (Ahmad Rida Khan Barelwi, rahmatullah alayhi d. 1921), writing dozens of books and over one hundred articles on him after receiving his doctorate. He worked as lecturer, professor, and school principal, and examiner at Sindh University, Jamshoro; Khairpur University, Khairpur; and Punjab University, Lahore; as a paper setter for the Public Service Commission (Sindh); and as a supervisor of Ph.D. students at the University of Karachi and Khairpur University. He retired as Principal of the Government Degree College and Post-Graduate Studies Centre, Sukkur, Sindh, in 1992.
Dr. Masud Ahmed was initiated into both the Naqshbandiyya as well as Qadriyya lineages. His father, Mufti Shah Muhammad Mazharullah and Mufti Muhammad Mahmud Alwari (rahmatullah alayhi) from Hyderabad, Sindh are his two principal Naqshbandi shaykhs, while Zaynul�abidin Shah Qadiri (rahmatullah alayhi) from Nurai Sharif, Sindh and Mufti Shah Muhammad Mazharullah (rahmatullah alayhi) were his principal Qadiri shaykhs.
In 1992 the Government of Pakistan bestowed an award of excellence (Ijaz-i fadilat) upon him, the same year as he was recognised with an award from the Pakistan Intellectual Forum. Dr. Masud Ahmed founded the Idarah-i Masudia in 1992, which soon became a major centre of Islamic education and publications in Pakistan. In 2002, Jawid Iqbal Mazhari founded the Imam-i Rabbani Foundation in Karachi under the guidance of Dr. Muhammad Masud Ahmed. The aims of this foundation are:
1) To publish research articles on Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (rahmatullah alayhi) who died in 1624 in Sirhind, India and is commonly known as the renewer of the second Islamic millennium, "Mujaddid Alf-i Thani."
2) To translate literature about Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi into Urdu from other languages.
3) To publish an encyclopaedia encompassing the biographies and teachings of the Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi lineages.
4) To hold an annual Imam-i Rabbani Conference and publish a journal Yadgar-i Majaddid.
5) To have communication with scholars studying the Naqshbandiyya- Mujaddidiyya on an international level.
At the time of Dr. Masud Ahmed's passing, the goals of the Imam-i Rabbani Foundation had manifested. His Jahan-i Imam-i Rabbani Mujaddid-i Alf-i Thani in eleven volumes had already been printed. The lifelong effort that Dr. Masud Ahmed has put into communicating the life and teachings of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi is exemplified by this mammoth and unparalleled collection of scholarly materials.
All of the above indicates the tangible, worldly form of Dr. Masud Ahmed's magnificent contribution to Islamic education and research. It fails, however, to convey the more subtle formless qualities and aspects of his life and teachings. I had the honour of meeting Dr. Masud Ahmed eight years ago in Karachi. His calm, radiant being has left me with the lasting impression of a truly great man. The only way I can put it into words is to say that Dr. Masud Ahmed's being emanates the fragrance of the inner sunna of the Prophet Muhammad (may peace and blessings be upon him). If he had not published a word and if he had been totally unknown to the outside world, it would not have diminished his inner realisation at all. It is that realisation that can we can take with us when we return - as we all inevitably will - to our Lord.

Arthur F. Buehler
Senior Lecturer, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand
4 November 2008

Mufti-i-Azam Shah Muhammad Mazharallah Naqshbandi Mujaddadi (r.a)

 MUFTI-I-AZAM SHAH MUHAMMAD MAZHARALLAH (d. 1386 / 1966 )By: Prof.Dr.Muhammad Mas'ud Ahmed, M.A. Ph.D (Gold Medalist)Translated by: Mrs. Sai’ma Faisal Mas‘udi IDARA-i-MAS'UDIA, KARACHIISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN Mufti-i-Azam Shah Muhammad Mazhar Allah was the famous grand son of Shah Muhammad Mas‘ud Muhaddis Dehlavi (1309/1892) and the son of Maulana Muhammad Sa‘id (d. 1307 / l889). He was “Hanafi” and “Naqshbandi Mujaddidi”. He was born on 15th Rajab l 303 Hijri corresponding 21st April 1886 at Delhi. When he was just four years he lost the paternal affection, after one or too years the auspicious shelter of his mother also left. At the early stages of his life he became orphan & motherless. After the death of his parents he was brought up by his grand father Shah Muhammad Mas‘ud but he was also died after two years then he was brought up by his paternal uncle Allama Muhammad Abdul Majeed (d. l 364 / 1944). His paternal family was a centre of knowledge and bounty but his maternal were also distinguished. His maternal grand father Hafiz Abdul Aziz belonged to a reputed family of the state of Jahjar, His birth took place on 1246/1830. After the revolution of 1857, when the state dismembered he was migrated to the state of Patodi (India) and became the teacher of the Nawabs of the state & other after that posted on the distinguished post of secretary. Al1 these details have been written by a cousin of him. Late Mr. Abdul Rasheed (Magistrate Class 1, state of Patodi, India) in a preface of a manuscript. 1. EDUCATION AND KNOWLEDGE: Mufti-i-Azam started his education with the study of Qura‘an-i-Hakim and in a short period he learnt it by heart and attained the perfection in Tajwid and Qir’at (art of recitation of Holy Qura‘an). The national and traditional knowledge was gained by his uncle Allama Muhammad Abdul Majeed whose succession of Hadith (tradition) belongs to Shah Wali Allah. Besides him he also got education from other contemporary scholars and got the proficiency by personal study. He started verdict writing at the age of sixteen or seventeen. Mufti-i-Azam had great proficiency in different subjects for example Qura‘anic Commentary and Fundamentals of Commentary, Jurisprudence and Fundamentals of Jurisprudence, Logic, Philosophy, Mathematics, Geometry, Literature, Grammar, Tasawwuf (Islamic Mysticism), Knowledge of Inheritance, Poetry etc. But he devoted all his life to serve Islam. 2. DISCIPLESHIP & SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE :At the age of fourteen Mufti-i-Azam set off from Delhi with Maulana Shah Rukn al-Din Alwari in the service of sayyid Sadiq Ali Shah (d. 1317 / 1899) resident of district Gordaspur (India). Shah Sahib was the pupil of Shah Muhammad Mas‘ud and was the elder son of Sayyid Imam Ali Shah (d. 1282/1865). At that time Mufti-i-Azam was of fourteen years, when Sadiq Ali Shah had admitted him as a disciple in the Naqshbandiyya Mujaddidiya order. Since then after two years of discipleship his gracious guide died. Where upon his spiritual training was taken up by Shah Rukn al-Din Alwari. He granted him Ijaza or permission of Bay'a, allegiance in all four orders i.e. Qadiria, Chishtia, Naqshabandia and Suhrwardia. Mufti-i-Azam generally took Bay'a in the Naqshbandia order but some disciples also took Bay’a in the orders according, to their natural inclination and aptitude. A good number of devotees and followers of Mufti-i-Azam are spread in Pakistan and India. Mufti-i-Azam was a perfect man endowed with spiritual miracles, which have been recorded in a book entitled Karamat-i-Mazhari (Karachi 1995). Rukhsana Khan Ch. (London) has translated it into English. His religious, scientific and spiritual services are unforgettable. 3. IMAMAT (RELIGIOUS CONGREGATIONAL LEADERSHIP) Mufti-i-Azam was the Royal Imam of Shah Jahani Mosque Fatehpuri, Delhi. That chain of Imamat has been transferred to him as a royal legacy from his grand father Shah Muhammad Mas‘ud Muhaddis Dehlavi to him. Mufti-i-Azam has been holding that legacy for seventy years and gave great bounty to the world. This chain of lmamat has been in vogue since the rule of Mughal Emperors. At present the grand son of Mufti-i-Azam, Allama, Dr. Mufti Muhammad Mukarram Ahmed is the Imam of Fatehpuri Mosque and Mufti (the jurist of Islamic law) in Delhi. 4. SUBMISSION TO SHARI'A Mufti-i-Azam followed the Sunna i. e. the tradition of Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) at every step. The love of Holy Prophet reflected as mirror on every aspect of his personal and practical life leaving no trace of any lacuna or void in his words and deeds. His prayers business, behaviour, and life all were transmitted full of love of Allah nd the Holy Prophet. He had performed the prayers of Tahajjud (midnight additional sunna prayers) since to age of fourteen till the last moment of his life. Fulfillment of obligations was well diffused by the Holy love. Though he was too old and physically infirm yet he never missed to keep fast in Ramdan al-Mubarak. More astonishing is that in those days special energy was observed in his physique. He offered the Tarawih prayers with congregation and seemed more active at the times of prayers than the ordinary days. Love of Allah and the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) was on the peak when in 1945 he went for to Pilgrimage of Holy Ka‘aba and performed Hajj. Due to fascination and absorption of the Holy places, even the names of the children seemed to affaced from his heart, and he could not correctly identify and recognize his own sons. 5. DETERMINATION Mufti-i-Azam always acted on determination and resolution of will (Azimat). Determination and courage were the distinguishable qualities of his auspicious nature. Many incidents were observed; regarding his determination some incidents must be noted. 1. Nawab of Hyderabad Deccan (India) Mir Usman Ali Khan (d.1384 / 1967) invited him twice at his court (Darbar) but both the times he had refused the invitation and said, “If he wants to see me he may come but I have no need to see him”. These events are mentioned by Allama Akhlaq Hussain Dehlavi in Monthly ‘Aqidat (New Delhi, India) and Mr. Irtiza Hussain (Mulla Wahidi) in monthly Hamdard (Karachi). 2. In 1945 when he was present in the sacred place of Mecca to perform Hajj special invitations of royal banquet were presented to him by Shah Sa‘ud, but he had refused it by saying, “One who has come in the court of world's emperor doesn't need to attend any other court”. 3. During the time of British Rule Government invitations were often brought to him but Mufti-i-Azam never paid attention. After the partition of India he received official invitations many times but he did not attend and led his life fearlessly. 4. A splendid example of determination and extreme moral courage was witnessed when his scholarly charming young son Maulana Munawwar Ahmed expired in 1943 who took up the speck can feel its severity. When the dead body of Maulnna Munawwar Ahmed was shrouded and lied down Mufti-i-Azam stood on his head side kept on smiling and said, “O” Lord if you want to examine your servant will never feel afflicted, he is willing to abide your will”. Similarly the same unparalleled patience and perseverance were seen at the time of death of his young son Maulana Manzoor Ahmed who died at Hyderabad, Sindh (Pakistan) in 1949. 5. During the disturbance of 1947 he showed a marvellous determination and constancy which ought to be written with the letters of gold in the history of determination and moral valour. From 1947 to 1958 non-Muslim enemies hurled bounds and explosives on Fatepur Mosque approximately six or seven times but his firmness did not flinch at any stage. The most critical moments were in September 1947 when mosque was besieged by the enemies. At this critical juncture it was unexpectedly fear stricken people could be transferred to a secure place under the supervision of army. Mufti-i-Azam was requested to leave the mosque but he said “You all are permitted to go but leave me here. If Allah would say at the Day of Judgement that I had entrusted my house to you, on whose mercy and favour you left it? Then what answer shall 1 give”. Hearing this answer all the people were expressed their readiness and willingness to die in the House of Allah. Mufti-i-Azam had ascended to the pinnacles of glory where man becomes fearless and casts dangers and evils from his heart. 6. If the preaching of Islam Mufti-i-Azam proved himself so determined and courageous which hasn't any example. Before the partition of India he made thousands of non-Muslims embraced Islam with the same zeal and spirit he continued even after partition when no one had courage to do so due to Hindu domination. He preached and made the non-Muslims embrace Islam fearlessly in the midst of numerous hurdles and obstacles. Mufti-i-Azam had never been influenced or overawed by any superior authorities and never approached them for personal benefits with the result all respected him. Fatehpuri Mosque (Delhi) was the great centre of Ahl-i-Sunna i.e. Sunni. Scholars and saints call on him in a large number and paid reverence to Mufti-i-Azam. Before partition during their stay at Delhi, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Shaheed-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan gave him great respect and Dr. Zakir Hussain (President of Republic of India) also showed dignity and honour to him. 6. ARRIVAL IN PAKISTAN After partition he did not come to Pakistan for long time because in his opinion photography was unlawful according to Sharia’. Mufti-i-Azam came to Pakistan first time in October 1961. On his arrival at Karachi Airport thousands of followers and disciples accorded a zealous welcome. During his stay in Karachi there was always a crowd of visitors and homage payers at his residence. Thousand of people were blessed and benefited. His devotees proved their love by giving him invitations. Allama Abdul Hamid Badayuni (President Central Society of Tabligh al-Islam) invited him at a grand reception in Karachi and in this great congregation the scholars addressed in praise of him and appreciated Mufti-i-Azam’s religious, spiritual as well as educational services. Different people had presented the Manqaba (poems in praise of Mufti-i-Azam) in which the following names may be particularly mentioned: Maulana Ziya al-Qadri Badayuni, Aziz al-Mulk; Maulana Muhammad Yousuf Sulaymani Jaipuri, Maulana ‘Abd a1-Salam Bandvi and Qazi Muhammad Himayatullah. Mufti-i-Azam also went to Hyderabad at the invitation of Allama Mufti Muhammnd Mahmood Alwari and Lahore and had a warm welcome on both places. Scholars, spiritual leaders and saintly persons also attended the gathering, the following persons presented the Manqabat at Lahore. Hazrat Zeba Narvi, Maulana Muhammnd Ahmed Quraishi. After two months stay in Pakistan Mufti-i-Azam left for Delhi in the end of November 1961. In July 1964 he came again in Pakistan but it proved to be his last visit. At that time also warm welcome had witnessed everywhere. He visited several places like Karachi, Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Bahawalpur, Multan, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Sharaqpur, Lahore, Rawalpindi Muree etc. At all these places many disciples and devotees were present in appreciable number. 7. SAD DEMISE A few years before his death Mufti-i-Azam had such an overwhelming domination of Allah's Love in his heart and mind that love of all creatures even of his children emptied. The last moment of departure reached and on 14th Shaban al-Mu‘azzam 1386 on Monday (28th November 1966) at the time of evening the sun of knowledge and wisdom set down once and for all. “Inna Lillah-i-wa-Inna Llayh-i-Raji‘un” The holy shrine of Mufti-i-Azam is in the courtyard of Fatehpuri Mosque. It is the venue of visit for all people regardless of their caste and creed; certainly it is the reward for his determination, unparalleled constancy and firmness of faith and brief which he demonstrated for seventy years especially in the period of turmoil in 1947. The news of his death was announced by All India Radio on the same day and spread like a wild fee in Indo-Pak subcontinent. Many newspapers and periodical magazines also published this prominently upteen columns were written which shed light on his virtues and qualities. Some of them also published the chronogramic verses (Qat‘at-i-Tarikh). On this tragic Incident of demise, Azhar Dehlavi (Lahore), also had written a long dirge of mourning, various newspapers and magazines had written about Mufti-i-Azam details of which were published in Hiyat-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 1974) and Tazkara-i-Mazhar-i-mas‘ud (Karachi, 1969). 8. FAMILY AND DESCENDANTS In respect of descendants Late Mufti-i-Azam were profusely blessed with bounty and grace of Allah. By mere a glance at his children and the children of his children and their offspring the famous verse of the Holy Qura‘an come unto the lips as if through a spontaneous utterance surging from the depth of the soul: Like a Holy Tree Whose Root isFirms standing and Branches are in the Heaven(Ibrahim: 24) The descendants of Mufti-i-Azam are spread in the different cities of Pakistan, India and abroad. The first wedding of Mufti-i-Azam was solemnized in 1903 but after few years his spouse expired, he married again in 1909. After two or three years his second wife also died in 1916 then he married third time but she too died in 1367 / 1947 in Delhi. He was blessed with seven sons and nine daughters by three wives. Among them four daughters and only one son are still alive by the Grace of Allah. The names of his sons are given below: Allama Mufti Muhammad Muzaffar Ahmed Karachi (d. 1970)Mufti Muhammad Musharraf Ahmed, Dehli (d.1981).Hafiz Qari Dr.Muhammad Ahmed, Delhi (d. 1970)Maulana Munawwar Ahmed, Delhi (d.1943)Maulana Manzoor Ahmed, Hyderabad, Sindh (d.1949)Prof Dr. Muhammad Mas‘ud Ahmed, Karachi (b.1930).Maulana Dr. Muhammad Sa‘id Ahmed, Delhi. (d. 1996). CALIPHS & SPIRITUAL REPRESENTATIVES The circle of his devotees is too vast and they are widely spread all over Pakistan and India. Some of his caliphs and spiritual representative are as follows: CALIPHS: 1) Allama Abdal-Majid, Ajmer, India2) Allama Mufti Hafiz Qari Muhammad Muzaffar Ahmed, Karachi, Pakistan. 3) Allama Hafiz Qari Mufti Muhammad Musharraf Ahmed, Delhi, India. 4) Alhaj Qari Hafiz Muhammad Hafiz Al-Rehman, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. 5) Maulana Qari Hafiz Dr. Muhammad Ahmed, Delhi, India. 6) Dr, Abu al-Khair Muhammad Zubair, Hyderabad, Pakistan. 7) Dr. Abd al-Karim Chittauri, India. 8) Mufti Maqbool al-Rehman Sevharvi, India. 9) Janab Muhammad Usman Tonki. India etc. SPIRITUAL REPRESENTATIVES: I. Hakim Muhammad Zakir, Karachi, PakistanII. Janab Bashir al-Din, Karachi, Pakistan.III. Janab Muhammad Yousuf, Karachi, PakistanIV. Hafiz Muhammad Saulihin, Karachi, PakistanV. Sufi Fazal-i-Ahmed, Karachi, Pakistan.VI. Janab Safdar Hassan, Lahore, Pakistan.VII. Mawlana Muhammad Ahmed Qureshi, Lahore, Pakistan.VIII. Prof Abul Kamal Shamsi Tehrani, Aligarh, India.IX. Sufi Muhammad Ibrahim, Karachi, Pakistan.X. Sayyid Nawab Ali, Hyderabad, Sindh.XI. Hakim Muhammad Aaqil Dhampuri, India.XII. Maulana Ghulam Ahmed Tonki, India etc. WRITINGS:Among the writings of Mufti-i-Azam, the Urdu translation of the Holy Qur‘an is the most prominent. It was published from Delhi before partition. Now the Zia al-Qur‘an Publication, Lahore is publishing its second edition in the near future. The top most among his writings are those verdicts, which he had been writing for nearly seventy years. These are unique in foresight and prudence and spread in the different parts of Pakistan and India. Its first and second volume had been published by the title Fatawa-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 1970). Now the third volume has been included in the new edition (Karachi,1999). The academic and religious importance of his verdicts is admitted by the scholars of all schools of thought. The second great contributions are those letters which are preserved in India and Pakistan by many of his disciples and devotees. Its first volume has been published entitled Makatib-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 1969). Now the revised edition has been published combined I and II volumes (Karachi, 1999). In addition to this some treatises are also included in his writings. The titles of some treatises are given below: Arakan-i-Din, printed by Hilali press, Delhi, 1331 / 1912.Mazhar al-Aqa‘id, printed by Hilali Press, Delhi, 1331 / 1912.Mazhar al-Aqa‘id, printed by Hilali Press, Delhi, 1331 / 1912.Kashf al-Hijab ‘an-Masa‘ala al-Bina al-Qubab,Printed by Jayyid Press, Delhi, 1344 / 1925. Tahqiq al-Haq, printed by A‘la Press, Delhi, 1346 / 1927.Risala Dar Ilm-i-Tauqit, 1350 / 193l.Khazina al-Kharyrat, Printed by A‘la Press, Delhi,1367/1947.lntifa al-Mihal fi Ruya al-Hilal, Printed by Jayyid Barqi Press, Dali, 1370 / 1980. Fatwa Ruya al-Hilal, Printed by Jayyid Barqi Press, Delhi 1378 / 1959. Qasd al-Sabil, Printed by A‘la Press Delhi, 1379 / 1959.Shajra-i-Manzum, Khandan-i-Aliya Naqshbandia Mujaddidiya Mazhariyya, Printed by Imperial Press, Delhi, etc. Treatise No. l to 3 have been published by Idara-i-Mas‘udia, Karachi, in 1998 in one volume entitled Zia' al-Islam, its English version will be published with the title of “Light of Islam” in the near future Insha Allah. Treatise no.5 published from Delhi in 1926, Abu al-Suroor Muhammad Masroor Ahmed has re-edited it and new edition has been published by Idara-i-Mas‘udia, Karachi, in 2000. Treatises No. 4, 8, 9 and 10 have been included in Fatawa-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 1999). EPILOGUE BY SA'IMA FAISALFor thorough and detailed study on Shaykh al-Islam Mufti-i-Azam Shah Muhammad Mazharullah of Delhi end his descendants please see the following references. Shah Muhammad Mas‘ud Muhadith Dehlavii) Fatwa-i-Mas‘udi (Karachi, 1987).Shah Muhammad Mazharullahi) Fatwa-i-Mazhariyya (Karachi, 1999)ii) Makatib-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 1999)iii) Mawa‘iz-i-Mazhari (Karachi 1969)iv) Baqiyat-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 2002) Prof. Dr. Muhammad Mas‘ud Ahmed Karachi, 1969)I. Tazkara-i-Mazhar-i-Mas‘ud (Karachi, 1969)II. Faqih al-Hind (Karachi 1996)III. Hayat-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 1974)IV. Mah-o-Anjum (Sialkot, 1983)Dr. Abul Khar Muhammad Zubairi) Bazam-i-Janan (Hyderabad, 1988)ii) Sindh Key Sufiya-i-Naqshband (Hyderabad, 1997). Dr. Sayyid S.M. Arifi) Aashiq-i-Rasool (Bhawalpur 1997)Dr. Abd-al-Naim Azlz.i) Dr. Mas‘ud Ahmed Aur Nathr-i-Urdu (Karachi, 2002)R.B. Mazharii) Jahan-i-Mas‘ud (Karachi, 1 985) M. Abd-al-Sattar Tahiri) Manzil ba Manzil (Karachi, 1991)ii) Takhasussat-i-Mas‘ud-i-Millat (Lahore,1994)iii) Tizkar-i-Mas‘ud-i-Millat (Lahore, 1999).iv) Makatib-i-Mas‘udi (Karachi, 2002) Muhammad Masroor Ahmedi) Mas‘ud-i-Millat Kay Aathar-i-Ilmiyya (Karachi 1997)ii) Imam Ahmed Riza Aur Harat-i-Naqshbandia (Karachi, 1999).10. Dr. Ijaz Anjum Latifi i) Dr. Mas‘ud Ahmed life and works, Bihar University, India (Karachi, 2002) 11. Jawaid Iqbal Mazhari i) Malfoozat-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 1990)ii) Manaqib-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 1999) 12. Late Haji Muhammad Younus Barii) Anwar-i-Mazhariyya (Karachi, 1990) 13. Haji Muhammad Ilyasi) Karamat-i-Mazhari (Karachi, 1990) 14. Prof. Nabila lshaque Ch.i) Imam Ahmed Raza Aur Mas‘ud Millat (Karachi, 2000) Coutesy : Idara Masudia

Tuesday, December 15, 2009

Hazrat Syed Imam Ali Shah Naqshbandi Mujaddadi (R.A)

HAZRAT SYED IMAM ALI SHAH R.A. By Prof. Munawar Hussain The great Hazrat Aboul Barkat Imam Ali Shah was borne at Rattar Chattar in 1212 A.H. His birthplace is presently known as Makkah Sharif. His father, Syed Haider Ali Shah was a herbal physician (Tabeeb). He was yet a child when he lost the benign shelter of his father. He received his basic religious education from Moulana Faqeer Allah Din Koti and was trained in his ancestral field of medication by Hafiz Muhammad Raza and Moulana Noor Muhammad Chishti. He was very intelligent and he surpassed his fellow students in every discipline. However, from his very child-hood, he possessed a sensitive nature and was inclined towards poetry. Even during the days, when he as a student, he could compose verses with felicity and ease. In those days when he was quite young, he happened to visit the holy shrine of Hazrat Baba Fareed Gunj-e-Shakr where he met a fortune-teller who, by dint of his knowledge of physiognomy, read the promising signs of saintlihood on the face of the young saint and predicted: "This lad will command a sublime position in future and will be favoured by an elderly person of his family." Hazrat Sahib became anxious on hearing this prophecy and tried to visualize that particular person of his family, who was destined to lead and guide him on the Divine Path. In this respect, faces of all the members of his family flashed across his mind but he could not identify that special personality. That special personality was that of Syed Hussain Shah who was the pride of his family. As the Providence had already set it. Hazarat Imam Ali , soon met his spiritual godfather who, at once, noticed the brilliance radiating from his blessed face and asked him, "My boy, which book do you read?". Before Hazrat Imam Ali Shah could manage an answer, Shah Sahib advised him. "You should read "Masnavi of Moulana Room. Its reading will benefit you a lot. It will reform your deeds, enlighten your heart and enrich your soul". This was the lesson that Syed Hussain Shah taught to the young boy who was going to occupy a prominent position as a spiritual leader of excellence among the Muslim saints. According to a tradition, the Holy Prophet Sallalho Alyho Wasalam had given special instructions to Hazrat Syed Hussain regarding the training and spiritual upbringing of Hazrat Imam Ali Shah Next day Hazrat Syed Hussain Shah called him and explained to him a few verses of the "Masnavi Shrif". The words of his teacher stirred the very heart of Hazrat Ali Shah The very first lesson produced in him a great desire and urge to learn more of it. His interest rose to such a pitch that he started regular readings of the book. Whereas he proved himself a devoted student, his teacher, too, was not less devoted.The method of teaching of Hazrat Shah Sahib was superb. The manner in which he explained the difficult verses of the "Masnavi" was matchless and unique. When he spoke, the listeners were charmed and infatuated by the spell of his beautiful oration. The more Hazrat Imam Ali Shah learnt from Syed Hussain Shah the more he was inspired by his great and sublime personality. Hazrat Imam Ali Shah himself narrated that once, during his education, he had to visit Hafiz Mahood at Jehlum, along-with Hazrat Shah Sahib He witnessed strange phenomenon at the meeting of the two great personalities of that time. People from the surrounding areas were present to show their allegiance to Hafiz Sahib. Hazrat Imam Ali Shah also requested him to shower his spiritual blessings upon him. At this Hazrat Hafiz Mahmood said, "Allah will bless you with the love of your mentor". In fact, he was referring to Hazrat Syed Hussain Shah Hazrat Imam Ali Shah said: "From that day, my heart was filled with love of and affection for my mentor. When we returned, I requested my mentor to grant me asylum in his spiritual regime. He was gracious enough to accede to my humble request and admitted me to his spiritual circle. He advised me to indulge in "ZIKAR" (remembrance of Allah). Within a short span of time, by virtue of of his own diligence and hard work, and by the special attention with which his mentor treated him, he rose to such an eminence of spiritual status for which divine seekers endeavour for many years. Allah had blessed him with such miraculous powers as could purge the hearts of astray men at a single glance. He used to stay at the bank of a pond called "Dholi Dhab" for many consecutive nights. The pond was far from human habitation and was an ideal place for meditation and contemplation. He faithfully followed the routine, which his mentor had prescribed for him, throughout his life. He had a great respect for his mentor and held him in high esteem and reverence. He left no stone unturned to rise to the expectations of his mentor and served him to the best of his capacity. His love for his mentor had implanted in him a rare and special kind of humility as well. He crossed all limits in expressing this humility. He himself used to collect the excrement of his mentor as well as that of his horse in an earthen pot, carry it on his head and dispose it of into the river. This, indeed exhibited the humblest expression of his love and respect for his mentor. This is why Syed Hussain Shah had a great regard for him and held him very dear. Allah had bestowed upon him many blessings and a beam of light always sparkled on his face. Even after the demise of his mentor, Hazrat Imam Ali Shah kept the sentiment alive. A famous incident happened in his family. Once he got annoyed with his son Sahibzada Sadiq Ali Shah Sahib on some thing. All the well-wishers tried to resolve the matter but in vain. At last the Sahibzada made a request to God at the tomb of Hazrat Syed Hussain Shah in the following manner: "If a father gets annoyed with a son, the latter has no place in the whole world to resort to. My father is not only my parent but also my spiritual guide. For God's sake, help me in my predicament and helplessness". When Hazrat Imam Ali Shah learnt of it, he called his son and asked. "What appeal have you made to Hazrat Hussain Shah ?. The Sahibzada replied, "The secret is open to you". Hazrat Imam Ali Shah , at once mellowed down and said." Since you have approached the higher court, I forgive you". It is said that Hazrat Shah Hussain had permitted Hazrat Imam Ali Shah even during his lifetime, to take oath of allegiance from those people who were anxious to enter his spiritual circle. After the grant of this permission, he promoted the Naqshbandia School of Spiritual Order a great deal. A brief account of the valuable places of advice that he gave to his disciples is given as under: Emphasizing the respect of mentor he said: "A 'Mureed' (follower) must cherish respect from his mentor to such a degree that, so long as he is present in his company, he should not speak without his permission; should not daringly make an eye to eye contact with him. He should prefer his mentor to all other things in the world. "Treeqat" is, in fact, just another name for respect. A disrespectful person remains deprived of the blessings of his world as well as those of the hereafter". At another point he said: "Be all ears to listen to what your mentor says because to hear his advice is better than to read thousands of books. Perform whole-heartedly what your mentor enjoins you to do." Defining the word, 'Mureed' (disciple) he said; "A 'Mureed' is one whose carnal of desires have been burnt down by the fire of Divine Love. When he gets up in the morning, tears flow from his eyes on account of sorrow and regret at the life he has wasted. He is humble and un-resourceful. He feels sad at his past sins and aspires for Divine favour in future. He is time-bound for deeds upright and bears all hardships with patience. He always confesses his fault and is a candidate for the forgiveness of Allah. He does not waste away even a single breath without remembering Allah; rather at every breath, he thinks that he is taking his last breath". Regarding spiritual benefits he said: "The bounties and blessings that descend upon a mentor also descend upon the follower, but a follower can not get benefit directly from the Divine Court because four basic elements of his existence and his carnal desires obstruct his exaltation. Since a mentor is free from these shackles, and remains attached to Allah Almighty; therefore a follower can also get benefit from his mentor." He further said: "Repent is such a manner that you may never think of committing a any sin again". Describing the merits of 'ZIKR' "There are innumerable benefits of "ZIKR'. The heart of a person, who remembers Allah and remains busy in 'ZIKR', leaves no space in it for any other thing except Allah. That is why every object in this world is in his control". Talking of Spiritual maladies, he said: "Allah Almighty disapproves that the followers of the beloved Prophet Sallalaho Alyhe Waslam may be condemned in any way (as earlier people were condemned). However, those, who do not fear or do not obey Allah are condemned for they blacken their hearts and do not refrain from sin'. He advised his followers that they should never become idle. They should always remain busy in work and contented with their lot, and cherish the belief that God is the Sustainer and that He alone provides food to His creatures under all circumstances. However, it is impossible to get more than their due share. Therefore they should not disobey Almighty Allah by making complaints because disobedience causes damage in this world as well as in the hereafter. Allah Almighty had especially blessed and gifted Hazrat Imam Ali Shah with two great qualities which he had acquired by dint of his great obedience to the Holy Prophet Sallalaho Alyhe Wasalam. One of the quality was his healing look and the other one was his brilliant fact. Many non-Muslims embraced Islam at his hands and many misled Muslims reformed themselves and got the real spirit of the Faith. Such was a little show of the stupendous miraculous powers he possessed. It is that sick people got rid of their illness at his hands. Once a Sikh, who was a chronic patient of paralysis was brought for Hazrat Sahib. As soon as the patient had a look at the glowing face of the great saint he got up, embraced Islam, remained in his company throughout his life as a servant. It is stated that even in the season of winter, the said person used cold drinks in order to keep himself normal. He used to say: "Since the day Hazrat Sahib has cast his benign and kind glance at me, nothing soothes me down except cold drinks. It seems as if my whole body is on fire". Many lepers got rid of their disease by applying to their bodies, the wasted water used by him for ablution. Once a man brought his only son, who was blind, to Hazrat Sahib and requested him to help the boy, Hazrat Sahib put a little saliva into the eyes of the blind boy and prayed for him. In a couple of visits, the eyesight of the blind boy was restored. This account of Hazrat Imam Ali Shah's spiritual perfection and miraculous powers will remain incomplete if we fail to mention his highly appreciated and lovable book "Mura-tul-Mohaqqeen". The book is in the Persian language and is reckoned as a masterpiece of brevity and concision. It depicts the artistic qualities of the author in a superb manner. It has been written in such a captivating and attractive style that one likes to read it time and again. The book has been divided into two parts. Its first part deals with the life history of Hazrat Shahbaz-e-Toheed Hussain Shah, while its second part consists of the sayings and quotations of Hazrat Imam Ali Shah In the following extract Hazrat Sahib has explained how we can get rid of the charms and attractions of this moral world. He says: All material things that exist in this world impress the human heats very much and the impression is like a screen or veil between man and his Master. This impression gets deeper into the heart of man by adopting bad company, by seeing colorful shapes of different things and by indulging in idle pursuits. Therefore, to wipe out this impression, man should strive to get away from them. The other thing that strengthens this impression is the study of immoral books and man's participation in musical gatherings and idle talks. All these things widen the distance between man and Allah Almighty. It is, therefore, necessary to shun them and to become attentive towards Allah. Only then man can get his heart purified. The purification of the heart can not be achieved without giving up carnal desires and without negating physical demands." At another place he says: "Let it be known to man that the real comfort lies in heaven. So, he should bear the hardships of this world where his stay is only for a few days so that he may find eternal peace and comfort in the next world. In all cases, whatsoever, he should follow the examples set by his forefathers in religion. He should always offer his regular prayers in congregation (JAMAT) and acquire the knowledge of Hadith. He should not run after popularity and worldly fame as these things cause a great trouble. He should not be proud of having a high rank; rather should spend his days in anonymity." In his last days Hazrat Sahib fell ill. He breathed his last on 14th Shawal 1282 A.H. and embarked on his way to heaven. He was buried at Ratat Chatar (Makan Sharif India). He is spiritually alive till today and his valuable teachings will remain a source of guidance for the seekers of truth for all times to come. After his demise his son, Sahibzada Sadiq Ali Shah, succeeded him. REFERENCEKhazina-e-Marfat by M. Ibrahim Kasuri, Sher-e-Rabbani Number Monthly Noor-e-Islam Sharqpur Sharif by Sahibzada Mian Jamil Ahmed Sharqpuri Naqshbanid Note: Above matter extracted from Sher-e-Rabbani Digest.

Khwaja Abdul Ahad Naqshbandi Mujaddadi (RA)

 Dergah,Mazar-Imam Rabbani & Family Khwaja Abdul Ahad, known as Khwaja Wahdat (Q), was the fifth son of Khwaja Muhammad Saeed (Q) and commonly known as Shah Gul Sa'di(Q). He got his early education from his father. Later he joined the disciples of his uncle Khwaja Muhammad Masoom(Q) and completed under his benevolent guidance and became a pole of spiritualism.Khwaja Abdul Ahad (Q) was a strict observer of religious obligations and Sufi rituals proposed by Imam-e-Rabbani (Q). Besides he had contributed substantially for preaching Naqshbandia order. He had written a number of letters to Mughal elite and impressing upon them to correct their faith. His deputies were many in number who travelled far and wide and initiated The Naqshbandia order in Arabia and Africa. He had good sense of poetry also. 'Wahdat' was his penname in his verses. His poetic works include a Dewan and Mathnavi Chahar Chamman, besides a number of books on religion and Sufism.In his last days, he went to Shahjehanabad saying that Sikhs would attack Sirhind. In fact, after two or three months Sikhs attacked Sirhind. Khwaja Abdul Ahad (Q) passed away on Dhul Hajj 27, 1127 AH., December 24, 1716 A.D. His body was taken to Sirhind and was laid to rest near the hermitage of Khwaja Imam-e-Rabbani (Q). He was succeeded by his son Khwaja Muhammad Hanif (Q). Courtesy : Luari Sharif-

Khwaja Muhammad Saeed Naqshbandi Mujaddadi (RA)

 Shrine-Imam Rabbani Khwaja Muhammad Saeed (Q) was the second son of Imam-e-Rabbani (Q). He was born in Sha'ban 1005 AH or March-April 1597 A.D. He learned his early and higher education in both secular and spiritual sciences from his father Imam-e-Rabbani (Q). At the age of 10 years, he not only graduated in secular sciences, but also reached the zenith of spiritualism.Khwaja Imam-e-Rabbani (Q) used to say: "My Son Muhammad Saeed is a perfect scholar." Many notable scholars like Molana Abdul Hakim Sialkoti, Mula Sa'adullah, minister of then sultan of India, were among his pupils. He had, on a number of occasions, arguments relating to altercations in the religion, but no one could stand before his grip over the references and diversity of knowledge.Khwaja Muhammad Saeed (Q) had also authored a number of books on Sufism and jurisprudence. A compilation of his letters is equally important to Maktoobat-e-Mujadidia of Imam-e-Rabbani (Q). His other works include a book on those Hadith on which the Hanafi jurisprudence is based. He also had written an antithesis about raising forefinger during prayers.About his spiritual attainment, Khwaja Imam-e-Rabbani (Q) said: "Muhammad Saeed (Q) has written about his affairs, all are true and noble. These affairs are not divulged on any of the friends with the peculiarity."He also used to say "anyone who would enter into the heaven, but by the stamp of Muhammad Saeed." Khwaja Muhammad Saeed (Q) also performed Hajj along with his younger brother Khwaja Muhammad Masoom (Q). It is related in his various accounts that when he went to pay respects at the Shrine of Prophet (PBUH) a celestial voice was heard, "Quickly, quickly; I am desirous of you."His name and fame Prevailed far and wide. Even the ruler of India king Alamgir also heard a lot about his marvels. He summoned him in Shahjehanabad. Khwaja Muhammad Saeed (Q) went to him, but fell sick. He took permission of the king and proceeded back, but bode adieu to the mortal world at Sanbalakh, 36 miles away from Shahjehanabad, on Jumadi-al-Sani 8, 1070 AH., January 15, 1665 A.D. His sacred body was taken to Sirhind. His brother Khwaja Muhammad Masoom (Q) ordered to lay him to rest in the shrine of Khwaja Imam-e-Rabbani (Q). Though initially, there was no space available there, but later it happened. He was succeeded on the Seat of The Naqshbandia order by his son Khwaja Abdul Ahad (Q). Courtesy : Luari Sharif

Sayyid Abdullah Shah Naqshbandi Qadri (r.a)

Abul Hasanat Sayyid Abdullah Shah Naqshbandi Qadiri ( محدث دكن ابلحسنات سيد عبدالله شاه نقشبندى قادرى‎), popularly known as Hadrat Abdullah Shah Sahib, was one of the celebrated scholars of Islam and spiritual reformer. He is more particularly known as a Muhaddith (one who specializes in Hadith literature), honorifically as Muhaddith-e Dakkan (the Muhaddith of the Dakkan) in the Islamic circles of knowledge all over the world. A prolific writer of Islamic Sciences, he wrote extensively on Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and compiled his best-known work Zujajat al-Masabih in five volumes. A unique and comprehensive collection of Hadiths pertaining to the Hanafi School of Law, the book is considered[by whom?] a magnum opus in Hadith and Fiqh literature. An erudite Mufassir (Qur'anic exegite) and expounder of other Islamic religious texts, he was more importantly one of the most celebrated Sufis produced by India in the 20th century. He is popularly considered to be one of the Saint scholars among the masses of South India, particularly Hyderabad.

BirthThe Shaykh was born in Husaini 'Alam, Hyderabad, on 10th of Dhu'l Hijjah, 1292(A.H) or 6th of February 1872 (A.D). His father was Mawlana Sayyid Muzaffar Husain Ibn Sayyid Yaqub of Naldrug. Since the migration of his ancestor, Hazrat Sayyid Ali, this family has been the recipient of land grant from Adil Shah I, the ruler of Bijapur. The daughter of Hazrat Gul Badshah was his mother.

EducationIn keeping with the traditions of the then society, this young sufi didn't attend any formal school for his education and training. He received his elementary education and lessons in Persian from his father; Logic and philosophy from Mawlana Mansur Ali Khan; the Qur'anic sciences and other subjects from Shaykh al-Islam Hafiz Anwarulla Khan Faruqi, the founder of Jamia Nizamia, jurisprudence from Mawlana Habibur Rahman Saharanpuri, and the science of Hadith and literature from Mawlana Hakim Abdur Rahman Saharanpuri.

TeachingEven while a student, he started teaching, in both formal and non-formal ways. At times this was in the form of adult education. Most of his audience consisted of elite and common people. He began his teaching career at the mosque named Ali Aqa at Husaini Alam, Hyderabad, and continued it uninterrupted till his last breath.
The well known Syrian scholar Shaykh Abdul Fattah visited Hyderabad and took ijazahs and asnad from Shaykh al-Allamah Abul Hasanat Abdullah Shah.

His Tasawuf
At first he became the disciple of Hadrat Miskin Shah a famous Sufi of Hyderabad, India. Later, on the death of the latter, he approached Hadrat Sayyid Muhammad Badshah Bukhari, popularly known as Bukhari Shah Sahib, who was a renowned spiritual personality of that time. The latter practiced both the Qadiriyyah and the Naqshbandiyyah Sufi Tariqahs or paths. So long as his spiritual mentor was alive, whatever the climate would be, he would see him on daily basis walking about 4 miles to serve him in his mid-night special ritual prayers, the Tahajjud, assisting his spiritual master in performing the ablution and other prayer rituals. This practice went on for about 20 years until the death of his shaykh, Sayyid Badshah Bukhari. During the life-time of his spiritual master, Hadrat Abdullah Shah did not like to have his own spiritual disciples Murids. The number of disciples Murids in his own life time, however, reached in hundreds and thousands. He consistently followed the Hanafi school of jurisprudence and the practices of his spiritual master by initiating his disciples both in the Qadiriyyah and Naqshbandiya Orders.Hadrat Abdullah Shah took immense care to adhere to the Sunnah in all his actions, sayings and writings. He was always eager to put into practice the teachings of the Prophet, recorded in the Sunnah.

Daily ScheduleHis emotional attachment and sincere commitment to Allah and His Messenger was remarkably evident in all he did. He would spend most of his time in the service of Allah's creations. He would begin his day early in the morning from the Fajr prayer. He would then patiently listen to his disciples. Next he would meet the public and attend to individual grievances till 9 o'clock in the morning. After Ishraq prayers, for breakfast and other personal needs, he would spare a few minutes. From almost 10 A.M to 2 P.M, he would have a separate session for women who either approach him for guidance or spiritual consolation. At 2 P.M he would return to the mosque for midday Zuhr prayer and until late afternoon Asr prayer he would be engaged in giving instructions and individual attention to his disciples, responding to miscellaneous requests for help, and so on. The time between Asr and sunset Maghrib followed by the Awwabin prayers, he would have dinner, attend to the letters addressed to him and dictate letters of advice. At 10 P.M he would go to the mosque for nightfall 'Isha' prayer and return home at around midnight. He would sleep for three hours. From 2 A.M till Fajr prayer he would be busy again with Tahajjud prayers. In short, he would rest for three hours and the rest of the 21 hours he would devote his time to the remembrance of the Lord and His creatures.

Prediction of His Own PassingWhen his contemporary Shaykh Hadrat Sayyid Muhammad Badshah Husaini departed from this world on 25th of August, Hadrat Abdullah Shah predicted that he too would leave this mortal world in two days. His prediction came true. With his death on 18th of Rabi' al-Thani, 1384 A.H or 1964 A.D, at the age of 92 years, the world lost a great spiritual leader and an eminent scholar. The funeral procession was the largest of its kind in the history of Hyderabad, attended by more than two hundred and fifty thousand people. He is buried in Naqshbandi Chaman, Misri Gunj, Hyderabad.

WorksApart from Zujajat al-Masabih, he has written various books on diverse subjects, right from Salaat to Sulook. The following is a list of his works:
Fadhail Namaz- On the excellence and blessings of Salaat.
Yousufnama- Known as Guldasta-e-Tareeqat as well. This is an exegesis (Tafseer) of the Surah Yousuf of the Holy Quran.
Qiyamatnama- On the trials and tribulations of the Day of Judgment.
Merajnama- On the heavenly journey (Meraj) of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)
Miladnama- On the Milad of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)
Gulzar Auliya- A brief introduction of the Elders of the Naqshbandi order of Tasawwuf.
Mawaiz Hasana, Volumes 1 and 2- The sayings and teachings of Hadhrat Muhaddith-e-Deccan.
Suluk-e-Mujaddidiya- A treatise on the teachings of the Naqshbandi Mujaddidi order of Tasawwuf.
Fadhail Ramadhan- On the excellence of the month of Ramadhan.
Kitab ul Muhabbat- A treatise on the love of Allah.

His LegacyHis spiritual and intellectual legacy is being carried forward by his disciples and students. After him, his spiritual lineage was carried forward in the following way:
His eldest son, Abul Barakaat Syed Khaleelullah Shah Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Qadri.
Hadhrat Khaleelullah's son, Hadhrat Syed Anwarullah Shah Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Qadri.
Now, the last son of Hadhrat Abdullah Shah, Abul Khair Hadhrat Syed Rahmatullah Shah Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Qadri.
Apart from his sons, Hadhrat Muhaddith-e-Deccan has also authorized other persons to spread the teachings of Islam, who are carrying forward his legacy in their own way.
Under the guidance of Hadhrat Abul Khair, Mufti Syed Ziauddin Naqshbandi Qadri, Naib Shaykh Ul Fiqh, Jamia Nizamia started a research center, by name, Abul Hasanaat Islamic Research Center, which runs and manages the website, which is gradually uploading the works of Hadhrat Muhaddith-e-Deccan on the net and thus fulfilling a long-felt need.And Still the Legacy Continues through his son's.

"Tazkarah Hazrat Muhaddith e Deccan" Swanih,Aqaid,Amal" in Urdu by Dr.Abul Khairat Muhammad Abdul Sattar Khan Naqhbandi Qadri,M.A.,Ph.D, Khalifah Hadrat Abdullah Shah ,Sabiq Sadar Shubah e Arabi,Jamia Osmania,Hyderabad Deccan,India,published by Al-Mumtaz Publications,Lahore,Pakistan

Coutesy : Wikipedia

Monday, December 14, 2009

Hazrat Khalid al-Baghdadi (r.a)

Tomb in Damascus
Hazrat Khalid ibn Husayn al-Baghdadi al-Uthmani [d.1242 H - 1826 CE] 'alayhir ar-rahman w'al ridwan
Khalid al-Baghdadi was a Naqshbandi shaykh and founder of the Khalidi branch of the Naqshbandi order. He was born [in the year 1193 H./1779 CE] in Shehrezur, Karadag an area near to Sulaymaniye in northern Iraq. His full name was Khalid ibn Husain taking the nickname "Ziyauddin" and al-Baghdadi later.
His grandfather was Par Mika'il Chis Anchit, which means Mika'il the Saint of the six fingers. His title is 'Uthmani because he is a descendant of Sayyidina 'Uthman ibn 'Affan Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu, the third caliph of Islam. He studied the Qur'an al-kareem and its explanation and fiqh according to the Shafi'i school. He was famous in poetry. When he was fifteen years of age he took asceticism as his creed, hunger as his horse, wakefulness as his means, seclusion as his friend, and energy as his light.
Young Khalid studied with the two great scholars of his time, Shaykh 'Abdul Karam al-Barzinji and Shaykh 'Abdur Rahim al-Barzinji [Allah be pleased with them], and he read with Mullah Muhammad 'Ali. He studied the sciences of mathematics, philosophy, and logicas well as the principles of jurisprudence. He studied the works of Ibn Hajar, as-Suyuti, and al-Haythami. He memorized the commentary on Qur'an by Baydawi. He was able to find solutions for even the most difficult questions in jurisprudence. He memorized the Qur'an according to the fourteen different ways of recitation, and became very famous everywhere for this.
He then entered seclusion, leaving everything he had studied behind, coming to Allah's door with all kinds of pious actions and much dhikr, both loud and silent. He no longer visited the sultans, but kept to himself and to his murids, until the year 1220 H./1806 CE, when he decided to make the Pilgrimage and to visit the Beloved Prophet . He left everything and went to Hijaz through the cities of Mosul and Yarbikir and ar-Raha and Aleppo and Damascus, where he met its scholars and followed its Shaykh, the master of both the ancient and the modern knowledge and the teacher of hadith, ash-Shaykh Muhammad al-Kuzbara. He received authorization in the Qadiri Tariqat from Shaykh al-Kuzbari and his deputy, Shaykh Mustafa al-Kurdi, who travelled with him until he reached the city of the Beloved Prophet .
He praised the Prophet in Persian poetry in such a way that people were astonished at his eloquence. He spent a long time in the City of the Beloved Prophet . He reported,
"I was looking for someone of rare piety in order to take some advice when I saw a Shaykh on the right-hand side of the Blessed Gravesite (Rawdatu-sh-Sharifa). I asked him to give me advice, counsel from a wise scholar to an ignorant person. He advised me not to object when I enter Makkah to matters which might appear to be counter to the shari`a, but to keep quiet. I reached Makkah, and keeping in my heart that advice, I went to the Holy Mosque early on the morning of Friday. I sat near the Ka’ba reading Dala'il al-Khayrat, when I saw a man with a black beard leaning on a pillar and looking at me. It came to my heart that the man was not showing the proper respect to the Kacba, but I didn't say anything to him about the matter.
"He looked at me and scolded me, saying, 'O ignorant one, don't you know that the honor of the heart of a believer is far more than the privilege of the Ka`ba? Why do you criticize me in your heart for standing with my back to the Ka`ba and my face to you. Didn't you hear the advice of my Shaykh in Madinah who told you not to criticise?' I ran to him and asked his forgiveness, kissing his hands and feet and asking him for his guidance to Allah. He told me, 'O my son, your treasures and the keys to your heart are not in these parts, but in India. Your Shaykh is there. Go there and he will show you what you have to do.' I didn't see anyone better than him in all the Haram. He didn't tell me where to go in India, so I went back to Sham and associated with its scholars."
He then returned to Sulaymaniyyah and continued his teachings of self-denial. He was always looking for someone to show him the way. Finally, there came to Sulaymaniyyah the Shaykh Mawlana Mirza Rahimullah Beg al-M'aruf, known by the name of Muhammad ad-Darwish 'Abdul 'Azim al-Abadi, one of the khalifs of the spiritual pole, Qutb al-A'zam, 'Abdullah ad-Dehlawi (q). He met with him and gave him respect and asked him about the perfect guide to show him the way. He told him, "There is one perfect Shaykh, a Scholar and a Knower, showing the seeker the way to the King of Kings, expert in this delicate matter, following the Naqshbandi Way, carrying the Character of the Beloved Prophet , a guide in the Knowledge of Spirituality. Come back with me to his service in Jehanabad. He had told me before I left, 'You are going to meet someone, bring him back with you.'"
After travelling to India where he studied under revivalist Naqshbandi Sufi Shaykhs he returned to Syria where he engaged himself in teaching his students. He died in 1242 after Hijri [1826 Common Era]. His funeral was performed at the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus.
Coutesy : Spiritual Foundation
Belief & Islam by Mawlana Khalid (r.a)

Shaykh Abd al Ghani al- Nablusi (r.a)

Shaykh al Islam 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nablusi [d. 1143A.H/1733C.E]
'alayhi al-rahmah wa'l-ridwan
'Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi radi Allahu anhu was born in Damascus in 1641[C.E] into a family of Islamic scholarship. His father, Isma'il 'Abd al-Ghani, was a jurist in the Hanafi school of fiqh and contributor to Arabic literature. 'Abd al-Ghani showed diligence in the pursuit of Islamic knowledge and before the age of twenty he was both teaching and giving formal legal opinions (fatwa). He taught in the Umawi Mosque in Damascus and the Salihiyya Madrasa, his fame as an accomplished Islamic scholar spreading to all neighbouring Islamic cities. He died in 1733[C.E] at ninety years of age, having left behind hundreds of written works in virtually all the Islamic sciences.
His status as a scholar and wali (friend of Allah) is also unstintingly acknowledged by Islamic scholars who came after him. As a prolific contributor to Hanafi fiqh, there is hardly a work in the school that appeared after him that does not depend on or discusses his legal opinions. In the well known and most depended upon work in Hanafi fiqh, Radd al-Muhtar, commonly known as The Hashiya of Ibn `Abidin, the author and Imam of the school in his time, Muhammad Amin ibn 'Abidin (d.1836), frequently quotes the legal opinions of Shaykh 'Abd al-Ghani, referring to him with a reverence and respect that is not apparent in the mention of other scholars quoted in his work. Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahtawi (d.1816), the al-Azhari Shaykh of the Hanafi Jurists, in his well known Hashiya of Maraqi al-Falah, when discussing a legal opinion of Shaykh 'Abd al-Ghani refers to him as "The knower of Allah, my master 'Abd al-Ghani (al-arif billah Sayyidi 'Abd al-Ghani)". It is unthinkable that such eminent scholars should lend such respect to and depend on the scholarship of an individual who might remotely be accused of heresy. Nor is it thinkable that the numerable godfearing scholars who came after them and use and quote their works would find that acceptable (Ibn 'Abidin's work in particular has been used since it was authored by Islamic rulers implementing the shari'a in government, by judges, muftis, jurists and students of Islamic Law). This is particularly true in view of his book Wujud al-Haqq (On True Being), which details his Sufi ontology and which he taught in public seminars to hundreds of contemporary scholars in his own lifetime.

I believe that a valid point can be made here; namely, that in the time of such scholars as Ibn 'Abidin and al-Tahtawi Islamic culture was a great deal more integrated and balanced than it is today, such that Sufism was understood by shari'a specialists and even considered necessary for a complete understanding and practice of the Din. In the time in which we live Muslims have been engulfed by a civilization that is completely materialistic in its outlook. I believe that this saturation of the worldly has had the adverse effect on the Muslims of making it difficult for them to comprehend anything beyond the physical, which is why the words and experience of the Sufis seem alien to them. This over emphasis on the material also seems to be the reason that modern day reform minded Muslims have found the concept of an anthropomorphic god acceptable as well as the focus of religion being limited primarily to the outward manifestations of the shari'a only, such as salat and hijab for example, without there being any emphasis on internal development. It is not uncommon to find that such an attitude leads to a spiritual crisis of stagnation and meaninglessness, when after several years of practice the initial sense of euphoria of faith fades and one no longer feels the forward motion of increasing in closeness to Allah Most High.
Regarding the scholarship of Shaykh 'Abd al-Ghani radi Allahu anhu, one need only read his works to understand how truly brilliant this man was. In whatever subject he addressed, he wrote as an authority, whether Hanafi fiqh, hadith, Islamic ontology and metaphysics, Arabic literature, Quranic readings or other. Some of his works have been published, while the majority are still in manuscript form. Any skeptic could avail himself his works and make an honest investigation.

Coutesy : Spiritual Foundation

Abd al-Ghani al-NabulsiFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shaykh Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi (March 19, 1641—March 5, 1731), an eminent Muslim scholar and Naqshbandi Sufi, was born in Damascus in 1641 into a family of Islamic scholarship. His father, Isma'il Abd al-Ghani, was a jurist in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam and a contributor to Arabic literature. Abd al-Ghani traced his descent to the city of Nablus in Palestine, hence his surname Nabulsi ("of Nablus").[1]
Abd al-Ghani showed diligence in the pursuit of Islamic knowledge and before the age of 20 he was both teaching and giving formal legal opinions (fatwa). He taught in the Umawi Mosque in Damascus and the Salihiyya Madrasa, becoming renowned throughotu the region as an accomplished Islamic scholar.
He died and was buried in Damascus in 1731 at 90 years of age. He left behind hundreds of written works in virtually all the Islamic sciences.
His worksIdâh al-Maqsud min wahdat al-wujud (Clarifying What is Meant by the Unity of Being)
Sharh Diwan Ibn Farid (Commentary on Ibn Farid's Poem)
Jam'u al-Asrâr fi man'a al-Ashrâr 'an at-Ta'n fi as-Sufiyah al-Akhyar (Collection of the secrets to prevent the evils castigate the pious Sufis)
Shifa' al-Sadr fî Fada'il Laylat al-Nisf Min Sha'bân wa Layllat al-Qadr (Curing the heart on the Vitues of the night of Nisfu Sha'ban and The Night of Qadr), private manuscript collection, unpublished.
Nafahat al-Azhar 'Ala Nasamat al-Ashar
al-Sulh bayn al-ikhwan fi hukm ibahat al-dukhan, ed. Ahmad Muhammad Dahman (Damascus, 1924).
Ta‘tir al-anam fi tafsir al-ahlam, ed. Taha ‘Abd al-Ra’uf Sa‘d, 2 vols. (Damascus, n.d.)
al-Haqiqa wa al-majaz fi al-rihla ila bilad al-sham wa misr wa al-hijaz, ed. Ahmad ‘Abd al-Majid al-Haridi (Cairo, 1986).
Nihayat al-murad fi sharh hadiyat Ibn al-‘Imad, ed. ‘‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Halabi (Limmasol, 1994).
al-Hadiqa al-nadiyya: Sharh al-tariqa al-muhammadiyya, 2 vols. (Lailbur, 1977).
Hillat al-dhahab al-ibriz fi rihlat Ba'albak wa-al-Biqa' al-'aziz.
Kitab 'ilm al-malahah fi 'ilm al-falahah.
ReferencesIslamic Cultural Centre. (1970). The Islamic Quarterly. Islamic Cultural Centre, p.86.
Barbara von Schlegell, "Sufism in the Ottoman Arab World: Shaykh ‘‘Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi" (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1997.
Smoking and "Early Modern" Sociability: The Great Tobacco Debate in the Ottoman Middle East (Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries)
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Shaykh Abdal Haqq Muhaddith Dehlvi

Shaykh as-Shah Abd 'al Haqq Muhaddith Dehlvi [ d. 1052 H - 1642 CE ] 'alayhi al-rahmah wa'l-ridwanHadrat Mawlana as-Shaykh as-Shah 'Abd-al-Haqq al Muhaddith Rahmatullahi alayh was born in Delhi [Dehlwi, Dehlawi, Dehlvi], India. His father Saif al-Din Rahmatullahi alayh was a very pious and intellectual man, and this is a reason why Shah 'Abd-al-Haqq Rahmatullahi alayh's education and breeding was based on similar well founded principles. He was extremely fond of education and had a particular zest for learning from a very young age. Many hours of the day and the night were spent in reading and writing. After gaining his education in India, he was directed towards the Haramayn, Makkah in 996H. He stayed there for approx 3 and a half years, in which he attained his knowledge of hadith and also authored several books.Some of his most popular and recognised works are listed below;-
Ash'at al-Lam'at : This is a commentary on the Mishqat Shareef, and is recognised as one of his important works.Tarikh al Madina' : Another well known and important book.Madarij an-Nabbuwaah' : A highly acclaimed classic.Akhbarul Akhyar' : A ground breaking piece of writing in which the respected positions of the Saints of Hindustan are mentioned.'Momin ke Mah o Sal' : Months & Years for a Believer
Shah 'Abd-al-Haqq Rahmatullahi alayh was also a noted poet who went by the pen name of Hanfi. During his time the King known as Jahangir was a great believer in him. Jahangir praised many of his works, and also had many of his letters published.
On Dhikr, Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlawi Rahmatullahi alayh says:
"Undoubtedly, loud Zikr is permissible. One of its proofs is the saying of Allah Ta'ala, 'Remember Allah as you used to remember your forefathers'". (Ash'atul Lam'aat, Vol. 2, pg. 278) Allah Ta'ala also says in the Qur'an al karim :
"Then, when you have finished your prayer, remember Allah standing, sitting and lying on your sides". (Surah an-Nisa: 103)
In Sahih Muslim, it is reported from Abdullah Ibn Zubair Rahmatullahi alayhi : "When the beloved Rasool Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam uttered the Salutation at the end of his Salaah, he used to say 'LA ILAHA ILLALLAHO WAHDA HU LA SHARIKA LAHU' aloud" (Mishkaat, pg. 88)
Commenting on this Hadith Shareef, Shah Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlawi Rahmatullahi alayhi says: "This Hadith is categorical proof that Rasoolullah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam used to perform loud Zikr". (Ash'atul Lam'aat, Vol. 1, pg. 419)
Shah 'Abd-al-Haqq Rahmatullahi alayh passed away at the age of 96, [17th Rabbi al Awwal 1052AH - 1642 C.E.] and is buried near the shrine of Khawaja Qutb al-Din Bahtyar Kaki Rahmatullahi alayh, in Delhi, India.
Madarij An Nabuwwah-Vol 1 urdu Madarij An Nabuwwah-Vol 2 urdu
Courtesy : Spiritual Foundation

Shah Abd'al Aziz Muhadith Dehlvi

Hafiz Ghulam Halim Shah Abd'al Aziz Muhaddith Dehlwi [d.1239AH/1823CE] 'alayhir al rahman w'al ridwan

Shaykh Abdul Aziz Rahmatullahi alayh was born on the 25th of Ramadan al-Mubarak, in 1159AH [1746 Common Era], Dehli, India and was the eldest son of SHAH WALI 'ALLAH. Shaykh Abdul Aziz Rahmatullahi alayh memorised the Qur'an al kareem at an early age, and by the time when he was only 17, he became an expert in the sciences of tafsir, hadith, fiqh, Usul al Fiqh, Aqaid, mantiq, kalam, maths, history, geopgraphy etc. He had a great passion of all mental and written sciences. Shah Abdul Aziz was the most learned Islamic theologian in India, and his views on Muslim law were accepted by all parties among the Sunnis. Unlike most Muslims during this period, he recognized the value of learning English, and displayed no bitterness toward the conquerors. But he was a teacher and thinker rather than a leader.Shah Abdul Aziz translated the Qur'an into Urdu, 50 years of the Persian translation by Shah Wali 'Allah, when the Urdu language had started to replace the Persian. He completed the exegesis of his father from Surat al-Maida to the thirteenth verse of al-Hujurat.Shah Abdul Aziz soon built a reputation and a big following at his lectures which were extremely cultured and eloquent. When he spoke, he commanded his audience so much that his listeners were totally absorbed in his words. He would state some of the most difficult issues in an amazing clear way. His memory was matchless, he would dictate extremely long texts from books almost immediately after reading them. His compilations were reliable and trustworthy among the people of excellence. His compliations were reliable and trustworthy among the people of excellence.
Some known students of Shah Abdul Aziz Rahmatullahi alayh ;
Mawlana Sayyid Shah Al'e Rasul Qadri Barkati MarahrawiSayyad Ahmad BarelwiMawlana Fazl-e-Haq KhayrabadiMawlana Mahboob Ali Dehlawi Mufti Sadr al-Din Aazurdah Mawlana Muhammad AliMawlana Ahmad Ali
He wrote and dictated many books, some of which were ;
'Taufa Ithna Ashari' (Gift to the Twelvers) [Refutation of the shi'ah sect]
'Sirush Shahadhathayn'
'Fatawa Aziz', another famous book, is the collection of Fatawa (questions and answers on religious issue)
'Tafsir Fath al-Aziz' or 'Tafsir-i-Aziz' (in Persian)
Shaykh Abdul Aziz Rahmatullahi alayh passed away in the year 1823 [Common Era], 1239 After Hijri.
Courtesy : Spiritual Foundation

Shah Wali Allah (Qutb al-Din Ahmad al-Rahim) (1703-62)

 Delhi,India Shah Wali Allah (Qutb al-Din Ahmad al-Rahim) (1703-62) Shah Wali Allah of Delhi, the greatest Muslim scholar of eighteenth-century India, made an immense contribution to the intellectual, economic, social, political and religious life of the Muslim community in India, the effects of which persist to the present day. He lived during a time when the Muslim empire was losing ground on the Indian subcontinent, with the Muslim community divided and at odds. Seeking to give theological and metaphysical issues a new rational interpretation and labouring to harmonize reason and revelation, he tried to reconcile the various factions of the Indian Muslims, thereby protecting the empire from collapse. Shah Wali Allah contended that the root cause of the downfall of the Indian Muslims was their ignorance of the sacred scripture of Islam. He initiated a movement with the theme 'Back to the Qur'an', and translated the Qur'an into Persian to facilitate its understanding among all the Muslims of India. It is believed to be the first complete translation of the Qur'an from the Arabic by an Indian Muslim scholar. 1. Life Qutb al-Din Ahmad ibn 'Abd al-Rahim, known as Shah Wali Allah, was born in ah 1114/ad 1703 near Delhi, a member of a distinguished intellectual and religious family. He received a highly structured education and spiritual instruction at the madrasa (religious school) established by his father, Shah 'Abd al-Rahim, at Delhi. As well as the Qur'an, he studied Arabic and Persian grammar and literature and the higher philosophical, theological, metaphysical, mystical and juridical texts. He graduated from the school when he was barely fifteen years old; in the same year, his father initiated him into the famous Naqshbandi order. He began his career as a teacher at the Madrasa-e-Rahimiyya under the tutelage of his father; after the death of the latter in ah 1131/ad 1719, Shah Wali Allah became the head of the madrasa, teaching all the current sciences at the school for about twelve years. During the same period he continued his own studies, growing in stature as a teacher and attracting students to his circle. In ah 1143/ad 1731, Shah Wali Allah went on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), after which he remained in Mecca and Medina, the sacred cities of Islam, for about fourteen months, studying hadith (accounts of the Prophet) and engaging in intellectual discussions, meditation and spiritual perfection. During this time, he saw the forty-seven spiritual visions which form the subject matter of his famous mystical work Fuyud al-haramayn (Emanations or Spiritual Visions of Mecca and Medina). After making his second hajj, Shah Wali Allah returned home to Delhi in ah 1144/ad 1732. He spent the rest of his life teaching hadith literature and metaphysics and writing. All but one or two of his works were produced during his later years. He died in ah 1176/ad 1762. 2. Intellectual and metaphysical contribution Shah Wali Allah wrote in both Arabic and Persian. He published between fifty and seventy works, including five collections of letters and epistles. His writings played a major role in the intellectual and spiritual life of the Muslims in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, a role which continues today. Some of these works have greatly changed the Muslim approach to the study of the Qur'an. In addition, Shah Wali Allah tried to reshape Islamic metaphysics in greater conformity with the teachings of the Qur'an and the sunna of the Prophet. He adopted a more rational approach to the controversial issues of metaphysics, which led to greater harmony among subsequent Islamic metaphysical thinkers. He was careful to give a balanced criticism of some of the views of his predecessors and contemporaries. His constructive and positive approach to those issues was always considered a sincere attempt at reconciliation. Shah Wali Allah made the first attempt to reconcile the two (apparently) contradictory doctrines of wahdat al-wujud (unity of being) of Ibn al-'Arabi and wahdat al-shuhud (unity in conscience) of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi. Shaykh Muhyi al-Din ibn al- 'Arabi, the advocate of wahdat al-wujud, was of the opinion that being in reality is one and God. All other actual and possible beings in the universe are manifestations and states or modes of his Divine Names and Attributes. By the act of creation through the word kun (be), Ibn al-'Arabi means the descent of Absolute Existence into the determined beings through various stages. This gradual descent of the Absolute Existence is called tanazzulat al-khamsa (five descents) or ta'ayyunat al-khamsa (five determinations) in Sufi terminology. On the other hand, according to Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi, the exponent of the doctrine of wahdat al-shuhud, God and creation are not identical; rather, the latter is a shadow or reflection of the Divines Name and Attributes when they are reflected in the mirrors of their opposite non-beings (a'dam al-mutaqabila). Shah Wali Allah neatly resolved the conflict, calling these differences 'verbal controversies' which have come about because of ambiguous language. If we leave, he says, all the metaphors and similes used for the expression of ideas aside, the apparently opposite views of the two metaphysicians will agree. The positive result of Shah Wali Allah's reconciliatory efforts was twofold: it brought about harmony between the two opposing groups of metaphysicians, and it also legitimized the doctrine of wahdat al-wujud among the mutakallimun (theologians), who previously had not been ready to accept it. Shah Wali Allah wrote about thirteen works on metaphysics, which contain his constructive and balanced metaphysical system. One of the most important is al-Khayr al-kathir (The Abundant Good). This work is divided into ten chapters, each called a khizana (treasure). The first four chapters deal with the reality of wujud (being), knowledge of God, the relationship between God and the universe, and human knowledge. From the discussion of human knowledge, Shah Wali Allah turns to the discussion of the reality of prophecy and the prophethood of Muhammad. In the seventh khizana, he deals with the rules and principles of sainthood and mysticism. The eighth and ninth chapters contain details about practical aspects of Islam, the shari'a, as well as the eschatological view of Islam. In the tenth khizana, Shah Wali Allah explains his theological view which, according to him, is in full accord with Ash'arite theology. Altaf al-quds fi ma'rifat lata'if al-nafs (The Sacred Knowledge) is another metaphysical work concerned with the inner dimensions of human personality. Here Shah Wali Allah deals with the important questions of mystical intuition (kashf) and inspiration (ilham). He examines systematically the reality of both the external and internal perceptive qualities of a human being as the heart, the intellect, the spirit, the self, the secret (al-sirr) and the ego. A separate chapter is devoted to the metaphysical teachings of Shaykh Junaid Baghdadi, wherein he presents a brief historical account of mysticism. The last chapter deals with the subtle question of 'thoughts and their causes'. Shah Wali Allah specifies various external and internal causes which affect the human mind and produce thoughts. Sata'at (Manifestations) is a systematic division of wujud (being), representing Shah Wali Allah's view concerning the tashkik al-wujud (hierarchy or gradation of being). Existence, in relation to determined being, is composed of existence and essence and has many grades, stages and modes. The particular beings in the universe provide the foundation for the claim of the tashkik (gradation) and kathrat (multiplicity) of being. Each grade or stage covers a certain area of determination and each stage is related to the next, not in a way that a material being is connected to another material being, but in ma'nawi (conceptual) manner. He describes the relationship between the various stages of being as like that between the lights of various lamps in a single room. The lights of these lamps are apparently mingled and are one, and are difficult to differentiate from one another; but in reality, they are distinguishable from one another because of the number of the lamps. Shah Wali Allah's 'magnum opus' is his Hujjat Allah al-baligha (The Profound Evidence of Allah). This comprehensive work deals with both intellectual and practical aspects of Islam. The first part deals with metaphysics, scholastic theology, the gradual development or evolution of human society and the philosophy behind the divine injunctions. The second part is devoted to ethics, politics, rituals and the social life of Islam. Al-Tafhimat al-ilahiyya (Instructions or Clear Understanding) is one of his most comprehensive metaphysical works. The work is divided into sections called tafhim (instruction). Both Arabic and Persian languages are used for the expression of ideas and concepts in this work. These tafahim (plural of tafhim) are actually Shah Wali Allah's mystical visions and experiences, and his letters and articles written to various people at various times in different contexts. The famous epistle called Maktub al-madani (Madinian Epistle) to Isma'il Afandi is a part of the second volume of the book. This article is a detailed description of wahdat al-wujud and wahdat al-shuhud, along with Shah Wali Allah's attempt at reconciliation concerning this controversial issue. In addition to the ontological discussions, the work also includes the author's cosmological, anthropological and theological views. Another important metaphysical work is al-Budur al-bazigha (The Full Moons Rising in Splendour). The introduction deals with basic metaphysical issues such as wujud in general, the unity of God, the essence and existence of God and the relationship between God and the universe. Shah Wali Allah considers the universe to be a manifestation of the Divine Attributes. In the first chapter, he deals with the study of humanity with respect to its social and rational being. The second chapter is devoted to humanity's relationship with the Creator. At the end of the work, Shah Wali Allah describes in detail the reasons and causes for the development and evolution of the various shara'i' (religions or religious laws) and milal (religious communities). Shah Wali Allah also tried to provide a basis for bringing the four schools of law closer to each other. His commentaries on the Mu'atta (a collection of the Prophet's sayings) of Imam Malik, called al-Musawwa (Arabic) and al-Musaffa (Persian), were written with a view to finding common orthodox ground for the reconciliation of different schools of Islamic law. Likewise, he wrote 'Aqd al-jid fi akham al-ijtihad wa'l-taqlid with the proposal that the door of ijtihad (judgement) is open. According to him, the experts of Islamic knowledge ('ulama' (religious scholars) andmujtahidin (legists) have the right to respond effectively to new situations instead of being perpetually bound to previous solutions. 3. Political contribution A hallmark of Shah Wali Allah was his ability to reconcile opposing points of view to the satisfaction of each side. Standing behind this aspect of his teachings is the unity of the Muslim community or umma. His powerful abilities as a reconciler enabled him to provide common ground and a strong basis for co-operation and harmony between the Sunni and Shi'i. Shah Wali Allah lived during a time of political and moral decline, chaos and destruction in the Mughul empire. His vantage point near the centre of the Muslim state gave him a clear view of the situation. He did his best to bring stability to the tottering empire and protect the Indian Muslims from disaster. Through his writings, especially his letters, he appealed to the Muslim rulers, nobles and intelligentsia to be aware of the dreadful situation and its possible consequences. His correspondence reveals many factors of Indian politics in the eighteenth century. His detailed letter to Ahmad Shah Abdali, the founder and ruler of Afghanistan, contained a comprehensive picture of the political situation in India. Ahmad Shah Abdali heeded Shah Wali Allah's call to invade India and restore Muslim power to the country, culminating in the defeat of the Marathas and their allies at the battle of Panipat in 1761. Shah Wali Allah himself left a rich intellectual legacy in the form of literary works, well-trained disciples including his four sons - who also became eminent scholars - and one of the greatest educational institutions of the time. See also: Islam, concept of philosophy in; Islamic philosophy, modern; Islamic theology; Mystical philosophy in IslamHAFIZ A. GHAFFAR KHANCopyright © 1998, Routledge. List of worksShah Wali Allah (1703-62) Altaf al-quds (The Sacred Knowledge), ed. D. Pendlebury, trans. G. Jalbani, The Sacred Knowledge, London: Octagon, 1982. (A general account of the metaphysics of Shah Wali Allah.)Shah Wali Allah (1703-62) al-Khayr al-kathir (The Abundant Good), trans. G. Jalbani, Lahore: Ashraf, 1974. (Comprehensive discussion of the links between metaphysics and theology.)Shah Wali Allah (1703-62) Hujjat Allah al-baligha (The Profound Evidence of Allah), Lahore: Shaikh Ghulam Ali and Sons, 1979. (A detailed discussion of the links between theoretical and practical philosophy.)Shah Wali Allah (1703-62) Sata'at (Manifestations), trans. into Urdu by S.M. Hashimi, Lahore: Idarah Thaqafat Islamiyya, 1989; trans. into English by G. Jalbani, Sufism and the Islamic Tradition: the Lamahat and Sata'at of Shah Waliullah, London. (A systematic and highly influential account of being.)Shah Wali Allah (1703-62) Lamahat (Flashes of Lightning), Hyderabad: Shah Wali Allah Academy, 1963; trans. G. Jalbani, Sufism and the Islamic Tradition: the Lamahat and Sata'at of Shah Waliullah, London, 1980. (One of the important writings on Sufism.)Shah Wali Allah (1703-62) Fuyud al-haramayn (Emanations or Spiritual Visions of Mecca and Medina), Delhi: Matba' Ahmadi, no date. (A collection of pure mystical and metaphysical experiences and visions received during his stay in Mecca and Medina.)Shah Wali Allah (1703-62) al-Tafhimat (Instructions or Clear Understanding), Dabhail, 1936, 2 vols. (One of the most comprehensive metaphysical works.)Shah Wali Allah (1703-62) al-Budur al-bazighah (The Full Moons Rising in Splendour), Dabhail: Madinah Barqi Press, 1354 ah. (Important metaphysical work.) References and further readingHermansen, M. (1986) 'Shah Wali Allah of Delhi's Hujjat Allah al-baligha: Tension Between the Universal and the Particular in an 18th Century Islamic Theory of Religious Revelation', Studia Islamica 63: 143-57. (A clear account of Shah Wali Allah's major work.)Kemal, R. and Kemal, S. (1996) 'Shah Waliullah', in S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman (eds) History of Islamic Philosophy, London: Routledge, ch. 37, 663-70. (Account of the life, times and influence of the philosopher.)Malik, H. (1973) 'Shah Wali Allah's Last Testament', Muslim World 63: 105-18. (A useful summary of his basic philosophical principles.)Rizvi, S. (1980) Shah Wali Allah and His Times, Canberra: Ma'rifat Publishing House. (A discussion of the links between Shah Wali Allah's philosophical views and the renewal movement in India.) Courtesy: Muslim Philosophy