Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education

The Naqshbandiya Foundation for Islamic Education (NFIE) is a non-profit, tax exempt, religious and educational organization dedicated to serve Islam with a special focus on Tasawwuf(Sufism),

Tuesday, May 11, 2021

Shaykh Hamza Yusuf - The Jewels of the Quran - Session 1 - Zaytuna College

Shaykh Hamza Yusuf - The Jewels of the Quran - Session 1 - Zaytuna College - 5/6/2021

YouTube :

Dive into the ocean’s depths so that you become wealthy by gaining its rubies and pearls.” In his book The Jewels of the Qur’an, Imam al-Ghazali exhorts readers to develop a deeper relationship with the ocean of the Qur’an, uncovering the immense beauty of the sacred words of God. In this live series, President Hamza Yusuf will elaborate on the main topics discussed in this work, focusing on the major themes, aims, and division of the Qur’an outlined by Imam al-Ghazali. The series will bring light to many hidden jewels of the Qur’an, enhancing our relationship with the sacred text in this blessed month.

Sessions with President Yusuf will take place on May 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 at 5:30 PM PDT. Online sessions will stream on both Zaytuna College’s Facebook page and YouTube channel. Videos will also be available on our YouTube channel following each session. 

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The Jewels of Quran - Jawahir al-Qura'n -Imam Ghazali RA - Translated by Dr.Muhammad Abul Quasem - PDF

The Jewels of Quran - Jawahir al-Qura'n -Imam Ghazali RA - Translated by Dr.Muhammad Abul Quasem

This is the first English translation,with introduction and annotation, of al-Ghazali’s book Jawahir al- Qura’n, in Arabic. It shows how a great sufi like al-Ghazali understands the Qura’n. In first 19 chapters al-Ghazali presents his views on various Qura’nic issues: aims of the Qura’n, methods of its understanding, how the Qura’n is source of all sciences, excellence of some parts of the Qura’n over others, the reason why similitude and allegories are used in the Qura’n, the relationship between the perceptible world and the unseen world, etc. Various parts of Qura’n are compared with various types of valuables, like jewels, pearls, rubies. Part II consisting of 2 chapters contains jewel and pearl verses concerned with the two greatest aims of the Qura’n. The jewel verses form the cognitive part of the Qura’n, for they concern knowledge of God’s essence, attributes and works. The pearl verses are the practical part: they describe the straight path and urge man to follow it. The entire book is translated by Professor Dr Quasem very accurately in free-flowing modern English. His translation is evaluated in two reviews: (1) “This is a useful edition to the translations into English of the works of al-Ghazali.... The translation reads extremely well, and should be of great value to readers of English who are concerned with the spiritual message of al-Ghazali”.— Professor W. Montgomery Watt, Head, Dept. of Arabic & Islamic Studies, University of Edinburgh, UK. in The Journal of Semitic Studies, 1978. (2) “The English tanslation of the 'jewels' and 'pearls' is fresh and original...This is an important work, and students of Islam as well as English speaking Muslims will be grateful to Dr M.A. Quasem for this lucid, accurate translation, valuable introduction, notes, and indices”.—Prof. Dr Alford T. Welch, Michigan State University, USA. (in Muslim World, October 1979, PP. 272-274.)

Islamic Perspective of Leadership: A Role Model for Today’s CEOs 

Muhammad Yousaf Jamil Director Quality Enhancement Cell, University of Management & Technology, Lahore (LUMS)

Abstract : The concept of leadership can be approached thorough various points of views including administrative, army, community and spiritual or from business perspectives. The author discusses the concept of Leadership as observed through literature survey about the Leadership qualities of our beloved Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) and his Sahaba (R.A). This paper aims to provide an analysis of a religious aspect of Leadership and its importance in the lives of every Leader especially Chief Executive Officers (C.E.Os). This paper discusses key attributes needed in an effective Leader from Islamic perspective and how these attributes can be made part of the practical lives of today’s leaders like CEOs. The key word “lead” means “to show the pathway”. The leader can drive persons forward with a vision to accomplish the common objectives. A true leader must have some universal inevitable characteristics such as self-confidence, trustworthiness, communication skills, compassion, hopefulness, promising, far sightedness, Passion / Truthfulness, Humility, emotional quotient, Problem solver, Delegating the authority, appraising, training, Succession Management and so on. This paper also addresses at length about the examples taken from Quranic verses and the life of our beloved Holy Prophet (SAW) and the practical examples taken from some of the renowned business empires of the world. Combining all the three sources, at the end of the paper, the author proposes a conceptual framework for an effective leader which can be set as a role model for today’s Chief Executive Officers etc. Objectives of this study are firstly, to define the key attributes of leadership derived from the Holy Prophet (SAW), the sahaba and the Quran. Secondly, to propose a conceptual framework for an effective leader and can be set as a role model for C.E.O’s.

Introduction Leadership is the capability of a person to lead cluster of individuals for the completion of a certain specified mission, grooming their followers with the aim of succession Management so that no flaw can be created. A true leader is always a man of principle who has effective communication, firmness and dynamism in their personalities. He / She must be sincere to commitments and must have a positive attitude during the conduct of their personal as well as professional lives. Leadership is looked upon as a means of motivating and guiding people in a manner and direction that is planned such that it is in the preeminent concern of the organization; it is basically making a change for the betterment of the organization. The Holy Book, Quran proposes and creates concrete commendations for the potentials that must be there in a leader so as to result in an effective leadership. Our beloved Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW), for the duration of his stay at Madina served as the head of the Executive or the equivalent of the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the State, Justice, Controller, Commander-in-chief and Mentor etc. The problems faced by the individuals and the society were being addressed and resolved effectively and in a very well organized manner by the Holy Prophet (SAW). To accomplish the determined probable output anticipated out of a leader, it is vital to sustain a comprehensive compliance and authenticity in the fullest possible sense to the shariah. Also, a leader is continuously required to be able to perform in a way and in accordance to how Allah and His Prophet would want him behave. Trust, responsibility and accountability or Amanah, Taklif and Mas'uliyyah are qualities that guide a leader in his quest. Thus, the leader is one of the most imperative members in any organization. Most prominently, firm characteristics of leadership assimilated into the religion of Islam and best characterized by the Great Prophets, need to be agreed upon and examined. In the Islamic context, leadership means to guide an organization towards realization and the attainment of the common goal, and to create a system where there is contentment, or alfalah, for everybody.A leadership model which is associated with the organizational values can resolve the problems and can stimulate the rest of the purposes of the organization. The Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) had all the qualities which if implemented in our real life whether it’s personal, practical or corporate, it can be made successful. There are some universal attributes /characteristics such as self-reliance, trustworthiness, communication skills, compassion, positivity, inspiring, awareness and far sightedness which can be helpful in order to become a successful Leader. Allah SWT has considered Him (SAW) in the Quran in these verses:“There has undoubtedly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an exceptional arrangement for any person whose faith is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] evokes Allah frequently.”i If we summarize the Qualities of Leadership as observed the life of our beloved Holy Prophet and his companions, we may include the followings;  Motivate people  Affectionate and sympathy to devotees  Conviction  Raised self esteem.  Open to recommendations  Aware of accountabilities  Unbiased  Swift decision making powers  Empathize with people undergoing hardships  Effective Communicators  Able to consolidate material  Executing the strategy  Self-motivated  A man of principles  Could plan with long term goals in mind.

Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 5, Issue II,  Fall 2015 -Full Paper PDF

Monday, May 10, 2021

 Decolonizing the Heart from the Mind-Centered Egolatry of Colonial Modernity to Islam's Epistemic Decolonization through the Heart: Mustafa Dustin Craun - The Center for Global Muslim Life 

Excerpts: "To make this shift in the geo-politics of knowledge in the context of Islam, I argue that what is needed is a shift away from Descartes and Western moderniy’s centering of human consciousness in the mind, to a re-centering of consciousness in the spiritual heart (qalb).

This in turn requires a shift back to a Tassawuf (Islamic Sufism) and thus a heart (qalb) centered understanding of Islam in relation to modernity. Since the Islamic spiritual science of Tassawuf has been de-centered and scapegoated in relation to Islamic discourses such as “modern revivalist Islam” (Wahabism/Salafism) and secular modernists, in this paper I will show that as it relates to the Muslim world Islamic Sufism can make an important epistemological contribution to the perspective of decoloniality."

"Despite the modernist reformers’ arrogance, Sufism is a vital part of Islam, and if we are to make reforms to move away from the oppression of modernity/coloniality, then it must be through a deep engagement with the spiritual as it relates to the destruction brought about by these reformers in alliance with modernity. As Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad has written, what is necessary in this context is a revival of the spiritual life within Islam. If it is ever to prosper, the ‘Islamic revival’ must be made to see that it is in crisis, and that its mental resources are proving insufficient to meet contemporary needs. The response to this must be grounded in an act of collective muhasaba, of self-examination, in terms that transcend the ideologised neo-Islam of the revivalists, and return to a more classical and indigenously Muslim dialectic."

The heart therefore is the single most important spiritual aspect of one’s life that we can have a constant relationship with as it relates to God and this process of self-purification. It is also the bodily location of our ruh which is the “underlying essence of the human individual which survives death.” Therefore, if purification of the heart is such a central part of the life of a Muslim, then we must question what type of inclination our existence in the world will lead us towards as it relates to our nafs (self). The Quran mentions three levels of nafs, these being the nafs ammara bi’l-su’ (the soul constantly en- joining evil), Al-nafs al-lawwama (the ‘soul which blames’) and after a long inward struggle, the Nafs mutma’inna (the soul at peace).

This is the nafs that one strives for in the process of the purifying the heart. Therefore from an Islamic perspective Man as it is constructed in Modernity facilitates the nafs ammara bi’l-su’. This is why to make the decolonial shift to the inverted pyramid as constructing the Human, from an Islamic perspective the self should be at the bottom of existence while God is located as the center of all existence. In Islam this would mean a shift from the ego-cogito to Tawheed (God Consciousness) where you are conscious of God in every aspect of your life, while your spiritual existence is centered in your qalb. This is a shift to a God and therefore a qalb or heart centered existence. To facilitate this it is necessary to make central the spiritual sciences of Islam, which have been marginalized by the orientalist discourses surrounding decadence. Using the term “Islamic Psychology” for Sufism here, Sheykh Murad has written that,

Islamic psychology is characteristic of the new ulum which, although present in latent and implicit form in the Quran, were first systematized in Islamic culture during the early Abbasid period. Given the importance that the Quran attached to obtaining a ‘sound heart’, we are not surprised to find that the influence of Islamic psychology has been massive and all-pervasive. In the formative first four centuries of Islam, the time when the great works of tafsir, hadith, grammar, and so forth were laid down, the ulema also applied their minds to this problem of al-qalb al-salim (the heart at peace). This was first visible when, following the example of the Tab’in [the second generation of Muslims], many of the early ascetics, such as sufyan ibn Uyayna, Sufyan al-Thawri, and Abdallah ibn al-Mubarak, had focused their concerns explicitly on the art of purifying the heart. The methods they recommended were frequent fasting, night prayers, and periodic retreats.

Through re-centering Tasawwuf Muslims will be better equipped to respond and create alternatives to modernity, as this heart centered existence will facilitate the possibility of developing the Nafs mutma ‘inna or the soul at peace. From an epistemology centered in Islamic Sufism, then, what is necessary first is to properly understand our consciousness and that it is centered in our heart rather than in our mind. If our hearts are alive, it can be our ultimate center of perception and understanding. Similar to Gloria Anzaldua’s understanding of La Facultad, which she understands to be a form of “inner knowledge,” is the Islamic concept of Al Basira (the spiritual eye of the heart) where one can develop spiritually perception and understand reality much more deeply and thoroughly. As al-Ghazali put it in his masterwork of the inner sciences of Islam, Ihya’ ulum al-din,

“Creation’ refers to the external, and ‘character’ to the internal, form. Now, [the human] is composed of a body which perceives with ocular vision [basar] and a spirit [ruh] and a soul [nafs] which perceive with inner sight [basira]. Each of these things has an aspect and a form which is either ugly or beautiful. Furthermore, the soul which perceives with inner sight is of greater worth than the body which sees with ocular vision.”

In seeing with the eye of our heart we can begin to differentiate between form and meaning, as the outward form of things are not always their internal and spiritual reality. An example is a supermodel who on the outside may look beautiful based on the standards of Western society, but on the in- side she may be stricken with anxiety, eating disorders, drug addiction and any number of maladies from being forced to focus only on their external beauty while not considering the internal realities of the heart and soul. Perhaps building on Aime Cesaire’s understanding of the Western imperiality as a poison spreading throughout the world, the best example is the West’s view of itself, as its most central significations of itself are those of benevolence and innocence. But as the world has seen for far to long, the reality of endless warfare and global genocide is the meaning/ reality behind the form. Perhaps this is best explained by the early female sufi saint, Rabi’a al-Adawiyya, who stated in verse, “O children of Nothing! Truth can’t come in through your eyes/Nor can speech go out through your mouth to find [God]/Hearing leads the speaker down the road to anxiety/And if you follow your hands and feet you will arrive at confusion—/The real work is in the Heart: Wake up your Heart!/Because when the Heart is completely awake, Then it needs no Friend.”

Full Paper PDF

Mustafa Dustin Craun :

Sunday, May 9, 2021

The Effects Of Spirituality In Shaping The Human Behaviour (An Islamic Perspective) 

Adamu Zakiyu Ubal, Abdul Hakim Abdullah -Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

Abstract This study focused to identify how the sources of Islamic spirituality influenced in shaping the human behaviour. It also meant to determine the role of Islamic spirituality in modelling the behaviour. The study is conceptual review, content analysis of the qualitative approach were used to accumulate information about the subject matter. From the report finding, The study revealed that the Islamic spiritually undoubtedly shapes the human behaviour in the sense that it touches and encompasses the whole aspects of the human life. In addition, the preferable sources of Islamic spirituality seem to be positively effective in providing as well as preserving the human behaviour. The study has implication for research on Islamic spirituality that is associated with Islamic ideas and institution, whereby Islamic ideas and system fundamentally base to develop human in all aspects of his life. This study will also help parents, leaders and entire members of the society to strive to inculcate it in their community. For this reason, the study will contribute immensely in the sense that it will determine the sources of Islamic spirituality that if been utilised adequately will help to combat immorality among the people. 

Conclusion By realising what Islam all about and its profound understanding of human beings, one can understand that Islamic spirituality is the solution to the present behaviour disorder. Islamic spirituality was fundamentally built on links one by his creator, the lord of the universe in a situation whereby all his actions will be in accordance with the provision of Islam so as to save himself here (the world) and hereafter (the day where the wealth he gathered and children benefit nothing unless those came with good heart). Furthermore, several of verses as well traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (may peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) that encourage and also inculcate on Islamic spirituality and its value here and hereafter have been stated. It indicated that victory and prosperity are whole behind the Islamic spirituality.However, the sources of Islamic spirituality that also helps to preserve spirituality have been highlighted where it found to be effective in shaping human behaviour which entails the capacity of whole the human’s activities encompassing his mental, emotional, physical and social interaction.

Full Paper PDF:

Understanding the Concept of Islamic Sufism : Shahida Bilqies Research Scholar, Shah-i-Hamadan Institute of Islamic Studies University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006 Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of Education & Social Policy Vol. 1 No. 1; June 2014

Sufism, being the marrow of the bone or the inner dimension of the Islamic revelation, is the means par excellence whereby Tawhid is achieved. All Muslims believe in Unity as expressed in the most Universal sense possible by the Shahadah, la ilaha ill’Allah. The Sufi has realized the mysteries of Tawhid, who knows what this assertion means. It is only he who sees God everywhere.1 Sufism can also be explained from the perspective of the three basic religious attitudes mentioned in the Qur’an. These are the attitudes of Islam, Iman and Ihsan.There is a Hadith of the Prophet (saw) which describes the three attitudes separately as components of Din (religion), while several other traditions in the Kitab-ul-Iman of Sahih Bukhari discuss Islam and Iman as distinct attitudes varying in religious significance. These are also mentioned as having various degrees of intensity and varieties in themselves. The attitude of Islam, which has given its name to the Islamic religion, means Submission to the Will of Allah. This is the minimum qualification for being a Muslim. Technically, it implies an acceptance, even if only formal, of the teachings contained in the Qur’an and the Traditions of the Prophet (saw). Iman is a more advanced stage in the field of religion than Islam. It designates a further penetration into the heart of religion and a firm faith in its teachings. Ihsan, the third quality, is the highest stage of spiritual advancement. At this stage the devotee has such a realization of the religious truths which amounts almost to their direct vision. This quality of Ihsan, which was later termed as Mushahidah (Direct seeing) by the Sufis, is described in the Tradition by the Prophet (saw) as: “Ihsan is to adore Allah as though thou do see Him for even if thou do not see Him, He nonetheless sees thee.” According to these three stages of religiosity, Sufism may be defined as the Spiritual Progress of a devotee from the initial stage of Islam to the final stage of Ihsan. 2 Macdonald in his book,” the Religious Attitude p. 159, writes, ‘From the earliest times there was an element in the Muslim church which was repelled equally by traditional teaching and intellectual reasoning. It felt that the essence of religion lay elsewhere; that the seat and organ of religion was in the heart. In process of time, all Islam became permeated with this conception, in different degrees and various forms. More widely than ever with Christanity, Islam became and is a mystical faith.3 Sufism in the sense of ‘mysticism” and quietism”, was a natural development of the ascetic tendencies which manifested themselves within Islam during the Umayyad period.4 To understand Sufism, we must understand mysticism. The Greek root myein, “to close the eyes,” is also the root of “mystery”; the mystic’s goal is not to be reached by the intellect or by ordinary means. Fundamentally, mysticism is love of the Absolute, the One Reality, also called Truth, Love, or God. According to Sarraj’s classic definition of Sufism, “The Sufis are people who prefer God to everything and God prefers them to everything else.”5 Sufism is necessary because it is to Islam what the heart is to body.6 There is no Sufism without Islam because Sufism is the spirituality or Mysticism of the religion of Islam.7 It is said that science deals with the universe outside us, and spirituality with the universe inside us.8 Thus, Sufism can be said to be a movement which aims at making people good and better Muslims. It is a call to them to actualize truly and internally those teachings of Islam they have accepted only formally or intellectually as part of their inheritance. 9 A Sufi relinquishes the worldly pleasures, the cheap sensations, the materialism and the corruptions, but not in theleast withdraws from the worldly living. He earns his own bread and is never a parasite or a menace to the society.He abides by the Shari’at, the cannon law of Islam, goes by Tariqat, the Spiritual Path, to achieve Abudiat i.e. The Unity with the Allah, his beloved.10

Full Paper PDF:


Dr Auwais Rafudeen is an associate professor in the Department of Religious Studies and Arabic at University of South Africa (Unisa). Dr Rafudeen studied fiqh under Shaikh Seraj Hendricks.

SHAIKH Seraj starts by providing an overview of the background and principles of those Sufi tariqahs that had a significant impact on the Cape Muslim landscape, namely, the Qadiri, Suharwardi, Khalwati, Rifai, Chisti, Shadhili, Ba-Alawi and Naqshbandi tariqahs.

As per his method, Shaikh Seraj is not only interested in tracing the genealogies of these orders but also in delving into the principles and practices that sustain them; principles and practices which ultimately converge in one aim: the individual’s realisation of the Divine in his or her life.

Among the noteworthy aspects which emerge in his description of these orders is that the Khalwati tariqah (the order of Shaikh Yusuf) has a sub-branch, the Sammaniya. It is this sub-branch which is the source of the well-known Samman dhikr in Cape Town.

He also shows interesting connections between the Ba-Alawi and the Shadhili tariqahs, in that the former, whose influence tends to be underrated because of their deliberately cultivated indistinctiveness, actually follows the spiritual methodology of the latter.

Shaikh Seraj quotes Sayyid Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr Sumayt who says: ‘The outer teachings of them (the tariqah of the Ba-Alawis) are based on the knowledge and practical principles as expounded through the wise guidance of Imam Ghazali and the inner teachings are based on the realisation of the spiritual realities and the purification of Tawhid as expounded by the Shadhiliyyah…’

The direct historical origins of Islam at the Cape are, of course, found in the Malay/ Indonesian archipelago. The character of Islam in the Archipelago was, in turn, significantly shaped by the nature of Islam in Hadramawt, Yemen.

Here Shaikh Seraj agrees with Naquib al-Attas, that the Arabic language and Islamic culture of Hadramawt was channelled into an Islamised Malay language which, in turn, shaped the literature, thought and culture of the archipelago with a distinctive South Arabian stamp.

This, together with the impact of Arab missionaries, trade links with South Arabia and the fact that South Arabia had also impacted on Islam in Kerala, India (another influence on Islam in the archipelago), shows that the ‘dominant influences [for Islam in that region] were Arabian, and particularly South Arabian, in origin’.

If we recall that Hadramawt is the spiritual centre of the Ba-Alawi tariqah, and plays a critical role in shaping the character of Islam there, then the importance of the tariqah’s influence in the archipelago, and by extension in the Cape, is significantly magnified.

And there is no doubt that from the 15th to the 18th centuries, via this tariqah and others, Islam in the archipelago was suffused with Sufism and this is how it reached the Cape.

In addition, the Ba-Alawi order also penetrated India, East Africa, Madagascar and Comores: slaves from the Cape were sourced from all these areas and, undoubtedly, brought those influences here to some degree or other.

The hallmarks of Hadrami Islam, namely immersion in tasawwuf and adherence to the Shaafi’i madhhab, become embedded features of Islam at the Cape.

The first known Sufis to have arrived here are the Orang Cayen (men of stature) in 1667, namely, Tuan Mahmud al Qadiri, Tuan Abdul Rahman Matebe Shah and an unknown third. They were, in all likelihood, Qadiri shaikhs, and there is evidence to suggest that the Qadiri order in Cape Town traces its roots to that period.

Among the evidence in this regard are certain Qadiri forms of dhikr characteristic of the Cape milieu as well as the historical popularity in that milieu of the following supplication by Shaikh Sayyid Abdul Qadir al-Jilani:

‘O Allah! To You belong all praise as an expression of gratitude, and all favours as an overflowing blessing, and through Your grace righteousness is secured. We ask You, O Allah, a quick relief from all anxiety, for indeed You never cease to be near.

‘(We ask You, too) for strength of courtesy in forbearance, for protection during all times of tribulations and for safety from all forms of calamity. O Allah, bind our gathering with the bonds of mercy, and when we depart, let us depart with our honour and virtue protected.

‘Cause not a single one of us to suffer misery and deprivation, and do not abandon us to anyone other than You, nor deny us the vastness of Your grace.’ (As quoted by Shaikh Seraj)

Shaikh Seraj then traces the history of the majestic Shaikh Yusuf from his birth in Sulawesi, to his education and travels in the Middle East, to his teaching in Java, to the conflict with the Dutch and the resulting exile of the shaikh, first to Ceylon, and then to the Cape, in 1694.

However, the description goes beyond an exciting narrative. Shaikh Seraj, drawing from the texture of tasawwuf, is effectively able to show that his journey and travails should be viewed in the light of four concepts: sabr (patient perseverance), qada (recognition of the decree of the Almighty), duah (beseeching the Almighty) and adab (proper courtesy to Him).

Beseeching the Almighty for protection and patient perseverance in the face of what He has decreed shows proper courtesy towards Allah.

Far from fatalism, this is an active and almost joyous engagement with the Divine decree, realising its higher purposes, conscious that it is a test, perceiving that constant struggle and activity is also part of the Divine decree, and knowing that, ultimately, all is to return to Allah and to their real abodes.

It is telling that Shaikh Yusuf was a firm follower of the ‘Wahdatul Wujud’ (Oneness of Existence) school, associated with the great Andalusian Sufi, Shayk Muhiyudin ibn Arabi.

In ‘Wahdatul Wujud’ there is a realisation that while Allah transcends the world, the world manifests His existence, power and attributes. A person sees Allah in all things. This state is only realised after purification of the self, which, in turn, is premised primarily on the practice of dhikr.

Of course, Wahdatul Wujud is not the only path that brings one to this realisation, and it does appear that its apparent difference with some other schools, such as the Wahdatul Shuhud, may be largely a question of terminology.

The realities arrived at are the same. Yet, Shaikh ibn Arabi, because of the difficulty of his work, has sometimes been misinterpreted and misunderstood as one who stands in conflict with the shariah. This is, needless to say, far from the case.

Aside from Shaikh ibn Arabi’s well-known and profound expertise in the shariah, the fact that great ulama, like Shaikh Yusuf and many others – the very guardians of the shariah among their own constituencies – have taken the shaikh as a principal spiritual guide, is sufficient to dispel any suspicion regarding the orthodoxy of Wahdatul Wujud.

More generally, the whole trajectory of Shaikh Yusuf’s life effectively dispels the prejudiced perception that ‘otherworldly’ Sufis do not engage in the cut and thrust of the world.

Did Shaikh Yusuf establish a legacy for his tariqah at the Cape?

Shaikh Seraj does not believe that this was the case. The social conditions at that time simply did not allow a full flourishing of the ijazah irshad system (a full investiture to guide others along the path) that is so essential to the perpetuation of tariqah.

The system requires that disciples be trained in a comprehensive way for an extended period of time before being granted permission to teach – a harsh colonial context simply did not make this possible. Yet, Shaikh Yusuf’s considerable imprint on Islam at the Cape is unmistakeable.

This imprint was felt via the litanies, devotional practices, basic legal and theological teachings, as well as practical ethics that appear to be Shaikh Yusuf’s legacy to that community.

Shaikh Seraj makes some informed speculations about the ‘Sufis of the Forest’ – those Sufis whose shrines dot the mountainsides of Cape Town – despite the difficulty of locating substantial evidence regarding their lives (except, perhaps, with the case of the tuans buried in Simonstown, where their families still possess documentary evidence).

He agrees with Adiel Bradlow that the influence of such Sufis on Cape Islam was considerable and that they were vital conduits in spreading and perpetuating Islam at the Cape – and at that time, Cape Islam simply meant ‘Tasawwuf’.

However, the role of these shaikhs was again not in the perpetuation of the tariqah disciplines (of which there is little evidence) but as conduits for practical ethics, maxims, Islamic teachings and, vitally, the litanies that characterise Cape Islam. In this way, they appear to have continued Shaikh Yusuf’s legacy.

Source Link:


Dr Auwais Rafudeen is an associate professor in the Department of Religious Studies and Arabic at University of South Africa (Unisa). Dr Rafudeen studied fiqh under Shaikh Seraj Hendricks.

SHAIKH Seraj Hendricks’s dissertation, Tasawwuf: its role and impact on the culture of Cape Islam, is a profound meditation on how this field, described as the very essence of Islam, unfolded and manifested itself at the Cape.

The period covered by his study stretches from the very emergence of Islam in that region to the year 1945. In doing so, Shaikh Seraj provides a penetrating examination of what has been written in the area so far, illuminating many aspects, otherwise obscured, by dint of his considerable training in the Islamic disciplines. A word on this training is necessary since it helps explain the significance of the learning that Shaikh Seraj brings to his subject matter. He, along with his brother, Shaikh Ahmad Hendricks, pursued intensive, formal studies in Islam for at least eighteen years. Seven of these years were spent studying at the feet of their illustrious uncles at the Azzavia mosque, and a further ten in Makkah, where they completed not only the demanding Ummul Qurra University programme but also the rigorous curriculum of the renowned scholar of Makkah, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Alawi ibn Abbas al Maliki. In this, they followed a family tradition as their forbears had similarly drunk from the immense scholarly and spiritual fountains of Sayyid Muhammad’s forbears. Moreover, their training did not only cover one disciple or one set of disciplines but all the key areas that a well-rounded, classically trained scholar ought to know. (And this is crucial since a particular scholar may be quite skilled in one area, such as fiqh, but be radically deficient in another, such as tasawwuf – a problem that, unfortunately, appears to be all too common nowadays.) And this training is apart from the ‘secular’ tertiary studies that they both successfully pursued.  Shaikh Seraj states that what moved him to study tasawwuf at the Cape was his family legacy as well as the scholarly works in the area by Achmat Davids, Adil Bradlow, Yusuf da Costa and Suleman Dangor.It was, in particular, the latter’s translation of Shaikh Yusuf’s Zubdatul Asrar – The Essence of Secrets – that transformed his perceptions. Zubdatul Asrar was firmly lodged in the ibn Arabian perspective – one with which Shaikh Seraj was already acquainted – and this spurred a desire to study the legacy of Shaikh Yusuf beyond his well-known image as political exile and freedom fighter. An attention to texts is, in fact, central to his broader project. This attention allows him to get under the skin of the subject he is studying, to really get to the heart of why the subject thinks and acts in the way he does. Shaikh Yusuf’s commitment to fighting the Dutch incursion into his homeland cannot be divorced from his commitment to the seemingly abstract and esoteric philosophy of Shaikh Muhiyudin ibn Arabi. On the contrary, the intensity of his jihad correlates with his immersion in the higher realms of tasawwuf and the perfect respect that all tasawwuf accords to the requirements of the shariah.The focus on texts is also indicative of Shaikh Seraj’s concern with the ‘texture’ of tasawwuf: the way it impacts in an existential way on the life of the spiritual traveller. Tasawwuf is, after all, individual: it is the human response to the sacred, navigated through the prism of Islam. And in this regard, Shaikh Seraj finds the phenomenological approach of Friederich Heiler conducive to his project.It is Heiler who ‘tries to enter into the heart of religion by studying first the phenomena and then deeper and deeper layers of human responses to the Divine until he reaches the innermost sacred core of each religion, the centre, the Numinous’.Yet, tasawwuf in Cape Town is also located in a firm history, and took on a myriad of hues in its unfolding through the years. We cannot simply confine ourselves to the meanings of individual spiritual experiences but need to locate those experiences against an objective backdrop, one provided by the normative Islamic tradition and the trajectory of Cape Muslim history.This will also circumvent the issue of solipsism (the view or theory that the self is all that can be known to exist) and ensure that those experiences are open to evaluation in the light of that tradition and history.It is this combination of keen historical sense, penetrative and empathetic understanding of individual spiritual experience and profound insight into the normative Islamic tradition that is characteristic of Shaikh Seraj’s work as a whole.A thorough understanding of normative Islam makes imperative the reconceptualisation of categories used by social scientists to study the impact of tasawwuf in Muslim society.Here Shaikh Seraj takes issue with the anthropological distinction between ‘great’ (scholarly) and ‘little’ (people’s) traditions and between ‘high’ (scriptural/ ulama) and ‘low’ (popular/ Sufi) Islam.He believes that these categories reduce Islam to behaviour and readable gesture, without seeking to hear why Muslims do what they do.They do not penetrate beneath the surface in order to unearth the texture of people’s spiritual experiences.When this texture is penetrated, seemingly ‘high’, scripturalist Islam may be quite folklorish while seemingly folklorish Islam may be quite sublime and cultivated.Moreover, the practitioners of tasawwuf do not understand themselves in these terms, and any meaningful insight into the phenomenon must take their own self-understanding into account.A clue to this understanding is the statement of Marshall Hodgson as quoted by Shaikh Seraj: ‘Always the ground of mystical life in this historical sense, is a striving for clarity and sincerity; whatever the level is they have reached, mystics, both Sufis and others, have spoken persistently in metaphors of Light and Truth. To this sort of clarity, the touchstone of relevance to everyday life will apply.’In this regard, he also takes to task those who wish to manufacture a tension between shariah on the one hand and tasawwuf on the other.This is a tension generated by a puritanical trend within Islam. It ignores both history and the complexity of Islamic law on issues like bid’ah, where shariah clearly validates the vast majority of popular religious practices associated with tasawwuf. These popular religious practices, in turn, are more than just a social or psychological reflex; they are responses to the Ultimately Real, that infinity that transcends the finitude of the human condition.The normative way to see the relationship between the two is complementarity: the shariah is responsibility (the law is what counts); tasawwuf is responsiveness (the Numinous is what counts).Sufis respond to the centrality of the Numinous while cognizant of their responsibility to the shariah at all times. And so someone like Shaikh ibn Arabi could apply the principle of al-adah al-Muhakkamah (customary usages legislated by the shariah) in the light of this Numinous, leading to a flexible and wide-ranging application of this principle.And it is here that the popular tasawwuf practices of the Cape needs to be located: not as something that operated at the margins of the law but something that flows in full fashion from that shariah in order to help actuate the very goal of existence itself, namely, reaching Allah.Shaikh Seraj makes the critical observation: ‘It is precisely at this level – a sensitivity to the numinousness as ‘responsiveness’ – that we discern the contours of tasawwuf in Cape Muslim culture.’There are also those who seek to locate the roots and perspectives of tasawwuf in other religions or mystical traditions. While Shaikh Seraj believes that a comparative study of mystical texts has benefits, it fundamentally misses the point.Such comparison ‘has little or nothing to do with the way ordinary Muslims, or for that matter, ordinary Jews and Christians, read their texts.‘While it may be true that an inter-textual study of comparative mysticism will inevitably generate its own and possibly different sets of meaning and value…it is equally true that a devotional reading of those same texts will render a completely different set of meanings and value.’Here again, Shaikh Seraj’s concern with texture, with how the Sufi himself or herself experiences the path, comes to the fore.Another misreading that he seeks to correct is the sequentialist discourse on tasawwuf. In this discourse, tasawwuf is seen as moving from one stage to another in history, from asceticism, then to love and then to gnosis etc.But, of course, this is far from the reality of tasawwuf.Within the individual spiritual journey, no matter what the historical era, all these aspects are to be found.However, Shaikh Seraj does find helpful Osman Bakar’s distinction between tasawwuf as historical unfolding and tasawwuf as individual experience.In the former, the intellectual exposition of its doctrines and methods has creatively interacted and adapted itself to the needs and demands of a historical period without eroding the primacy and multi-faceted nature of individual experience.Having made these critical reconceptualisations, the stage is now set for exploring the trajectory of tasawwuf in Cape Muslim history, which will be covered in part two.

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The Tijaniyya Tariqa in Cape Town - Susana Molins Lliteras 

This article is a summary of my Masters Dissertation for the University of Cape Town. The study focuses on a very recent phenomenon in Cape Town, which is the first of its kind in the field of West African turuq in the city. Therefore, the conclusions are mainly descriptive and should be seen as preliminary, as they may develop in other directions as the Tijaniyya becomes more established in the years to come.The Tijaniyya tariqa has been present in South Africa, particularly in Cape Town, since the end of apartheid in 1994, with the coming of West African migrants, predominantly from Senegal, into the country. Most Muslim immigrants to South Africa that come from West Africa are men, have secondary education and are involved in trade. Francophone immigrants from countries such as Senegal are small in numbers but sociologically significant, since their entrepreneurial activities give them an importance disproportionate to their numbers. They are mainly urban, enterprising and culturally distinguishable, and prefer inner city neighborhoods; some come from rural areas but are supported by networks like the Tijaniyya. The Tijaniyya affiliation is very important to such migrants as it gives them a network of contacts and support, but more importantly, moral and spiritual guidance in a foreign land. The first Tijani zawiya in Cape Town was formally established by Shaykh Hassan Cissé in Guguletu in 2002. He has traveled extensively bringing Islam to many people. In Cape Town, during his visit hundreds of people, mainly black South Africans entered Islam. That year marked a flourishing of the Tijaniyya in Cape Town, as his presence inspired many to join the tariqa and brought Tijanis together through his spiritual guidance and blessings. The Tijani zawiya is located in a simple white brick house in Guguletu that serves all the needs of the community, from housing for their muqaddam and guests, to accommodating their madrasa and of course, for daily prayers and dhikr gatherings. Shaykh Hassan’s muqaddam in Cape Town, Shaykh Abubakr from Rwanda, a doctor by profession, left a prestigious job in a university in Senegal to dedicate himself entirely to the Tijani disciples in Cape Town. He now lives in the zawiya, subsisting on the charity of the Tijani disciples, whom he leads on the Way, while also attracting more people to the Tijaniyya with his presence.The success of the Tijaniyya in attracting people to Islam as well as to their path can be attributed to several factors. In contrast, the failures of da’wa organizations can be traced to their lack of unity, ignorance of black African cultures, inability to speak a local black language, the lack of follow up Islamic education, and the conflicts with ‘established’ Muslim communities; and of course in the past, included the many obstacles of apartheid. On the other hand, the Tijaniyya offers an Islamic education in their madrasa, providing the practical knowledge and support people need to maintain their faith. The zawiya becomes a home to many in difficult social circumstances, making the tariqa a way of life; and for many, its black leadership and African background has a strong appeal. Tijanis are not seen as outsiders imposing an ‘Indian or Malay Islam’ and are not dependent on the ‘Indian’ or ‘Malay’ communities for financial support. The Tijaniyya also plays a vital role in integrating black Muslims from the townships with Muslims from other wealthier areas, as well as people fromdifferent racial and cultural backgrounds, an issue vitally important in South Africa today. Thus, the tariqa practically exemplifies the non-racial, non-nationalistic basis of Islam. Its success points to the importance of building alternative leadership structures in black communities for their own self-empowerment, and offers Islam as symbol of a new or alternative identity in the townships. The question of identity in South Africa today is intimately linked to issues of race and is quite important to many Tijanis. Although according to the Tijani muqaddamin, the goal is to see everyone as the same, independently of race and based only on their spiritual qualities. However, the realities of life in the Cape makes the matter much more complex for many South African Tijanis. For black disciples, the tariqa is particularly appealing because of its black African roots and leadership, making them feel at home and giving them a sense of pride as black Muslims with a rich Islamic history and removing any complex of inferiority because of their ‘late’ entrance into Islam. For ‘Malay’ and ‘Indian’ Tijanis, the tariqa is also especially appealing because it has brought them into close contact with both black South Africans and blacks from around the continent with whom they had little or no contact before. They consider their local Islamic community too enclosed and say that the Tijaniyya brings them out of their limited ethnic circle, as well as giving them a sense of identity as African Muslims and not having to connect with a remote ancestral land. In a sense, it liberates them from the legacy of apartheid giving them the opportunity to meet people from all over the world and of other races in their own country. On the other hand, Senegalese members of the Tijaniyya have experienced xenophobia in one way or another since arriving in South Africa, but feel that both black and colored South African Tijanis open up to them without prejudice. They strongly feel that the tariqa changes people’s attitudes through spirituality.

Thus, the Tijaniyya tariqa in Cape Town naturally exemplifies the characteristics and complexities of an ‘African Muslim’ identity. In its very brief history in South Africa, spirituality in the Tijaniyya is an important force that ‘normalizes’ race relations: it brings people from radically different ethnic, cultural and racial backgrounds together; it gives confidence to those who have been historically oppressed; and it opens the doors of Africa to South African Muslims. The Tijaniyya does not impose from the outside an ‘African’ culture nor does it render black South African Muslims invisible. Instead, the tariqa is itself rooted in Africa and offers African leadership as well as the ideal opportunity for Muslims from all backgrounds to come together. Racism and prejudice can only be effectively combated through true understanding and constant interaction. The Tijaniyya tariqa in Cape Town uniquely offers this opportunity. However, in spite of the importance of issues of race and identity, Tijanis in Cape Town stressed that the spiritual aspect of the tariqa was the most important characteristic of the Tijaniyya. For most, finding the tariqa was a very personal spiritual journey and their main focus and enjoyment is the dhikr, as well as receiving an education, both initiatic and Islamic in general. The spiritual method of the Tijaniyya, as described by The Handbook: Tariqa Tijaniyya, compiled expressly for South African disciples, like that of many other turuq, consists of the wird (asking Allah for forgiveness, offering prayers upon the Prophet and reciting the Islamic testimony of Faith) and remembering Allah as often as possible with dhikr (the invocation of litanies or one or more Divine Names). The goal is to develop an increasing awareness of the presence of Allah and to slowly gain control over one’s passions and desires; the passionate ego must disappear in order to let the spiritual Heart prevail. In the words of Cape Town’s Tijani leader, wilaya, educating the heart to make it ready to host Allah, is the most important teaching of the Tijaniyya. The Shaykh is also regarded as crucial for the spiritual advancement of the disciple, guiding the murid in the path of tarbiya, by purifying the soul, but always within the bounds of the Shari’a, the orthodox framework of Islam. In conclusion, as can be seen from this study, Tijanis in Cape Town keep away from controversies and feel that all Tijanis are brothers, independently of their race, origin or particular affiliation with one branch or another of the tariqa. They also regard other turuq as following a Path among many others to reach the same goal, thus questioning the academic view of the ‘exclusivity’ of the Tijaniyya. The order in Cape Town shows more signs of continuity with other turuq than of rupture with the past; the spirit of tolerance is present in all its manifestations. Similarly, although the history of the Tijaniyya tariqa may have been marked by a great jihad and political controversies in Senegal, its spread today beyond those borders has little to do with these extraneous factors. Instead, the spiritual dimension of the Way, the importance the order places on disseminating an ideal of behavior and piety, coupled with its bringing Islam to other parts of the world is much more significant. More specifically, when looking at the tariqa from the inside, one finds these aspects underlined by Tijanis themselves. One of the Tijaniyya tariqa’s main functions has been to bring the Islam of Africa to Cape Town, internationalizing it and bringing its local leaders into contact with a network of Muslims that come from different ethnic backgrounds. As the Tijanis themselves have remarked, the tariqa provides the opportunity for people of different “races” and geographic backgrounds in South Africa to meet and respect each other and to understand ‘African Islam’. But more importantly, Tijanis in Cape Town emphasize the appeal of a Way designed to deepen their Islam and purify their hearts to bring them closer to Allah. 

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Saturday, May 8, 2021


Amrizal, Riki Astafi STAIN Bengkalis Jalan Lembaga – Senggoro Bengkalis, Riau, Indonesia

Abstract This study aims to determine the development of the Naqshbandi Tariqa and its influence on the socio-cultural life of the Sakai people in the Bengkalis Regency. The findings of this study are that the Naqshbandi Tariqa entered and developed among the Sakai Tribe in several different regions, but not at the same time with varying figures of the carrier. If mapped, there are three main lines (networks), namely the first line of the Ibrahim Caliph in 1912 at Bomban Potani in the area of Bathin Solapan. Second, the path of Sheikh Imam Sabar Al-Kholidi in 1925 in Beringin Village, Talang Muandau area. Third, Caliph Mahmud in 1947 in Tasik Serai. The Sakai Tribe can well accept the presence of the Naqshbandi Tariqa in the Onder region of the Mandau district. It is evidenced by the existence of approximately 11 Suluk houses in the Sakai Tribe domicile today. The teachings of the Naqshbandi Tariqa greatly influenced the socio-cultural life of the Sakai Tribe. Most of them have abandoned the bad habits that have been practiced and become devout Muslims. Islamic values are very thick, coloring their social system, those concerning the method of marriage and family life, social relations, political and government leadership, customs and traditions, and the economy.

CONCLUSION The study revealed that Naqshbandi tariqa entered and developed among the Sakai tribe community through three periods: first, around 1912 brought by Caliph Ibrahim, the second around 1925 developed by Shaykh Imam Sabar Al-Kholidi and the third around 1947 developed by Caliph Mahmud. The development of Naqshbandi tariqa has shown a significant progression. The increasing number of followers of the tariqa and the establishment of several Suluk houses in the four districts, Mandau, Batin Solapan, Pinggir, and Talang Muandau, proves it. However, its development has stagnated and even declined recently. It is due to the absence of a significant increase in the number of followers. Moreover, many suluk houses are no longer functioning due to the emptiness of the tariqa leadership (murshid teacher or deputy). Only little suluk houses are still working and predominantly by older people. The teachings of Naqshabandiah tariqa has a positive impact on the social life of the Sakai people. They can abandon their followers' bad habits. They are increasingly obedient in carrying out the commands of the Islamic religion. Islamic teachings have always been the primary reference for them in their daily lives. Islamic values are very thick, coloring their social systems related to the marriage system and family life, social relations, political and government leadership, customs and traditions, and the economy.

Full Paper PDF: file:///Users/User/Downloads/4072-19530-1-PB.pdf

The Implementation of Tariqa Naqshbandiyah's Sufism Values in South Celebes :                             Hadarah Hadarah& A. Gani -Journal of Social Studies Education Research 2019:10 (2),243-269

Abstract For Muslims, particularly those interested in Sufism, the existence of the Naqshbandiyah Sufi order has a peculiar position. It is because of, among others, the considerable effect of Sufi order's tenet on the Islamic world, particularly in Indonesia, India, China, and Middle East countries. In Indonesia, the impact of Sufi order tenet has been distributed to nearly entire areas, including in South Celebes area. Even for South Celebes people, the existence of Naqshbandiyah Sufi order plays an important part because its existence is attributed with the great teacher in this area, Sheikh Yusuf al-Makassari. Sheikh Yusuf was believed as the first one to introduce Naqshbandiyah sufi order in Indonesia. This research aims at studying how the method to obtain fundamental values is developed in the Naqshbandiyah sufi order. Mainly, this research would like to explore the tenets practiced by South Celebes people. Also, to be discovered in this research are its actual plot in South Celebes, and the practical benefits it has that affect the social life of South Celebes people, particularly from their ibadah and muamalah aspects.

Conclusion and Implications The Naqshabandiyah Order has a vital role in the dynamics of the life of the people of South Sulawesi. Socially and culturally reflected the pattern of religious and cultural communication in it. The combination of spiritual teachings and cultural rituals in the Naqshabandiyah Order became a single unit with multiple impacts. The real impact is the religious perspective and pattern and how to socialize religious teachings with the social environment. Likewise, the important thing is the influence on the mindset and behavior patterns of the people of South Sulawesi colored by the values of Islamic teachings that nuanced the tarekat, especially the Naqshabandiyah order. As Islamic da'wah was first developed by three mubballig from Minangkabau in this area, the three muballig from Minangkabau West Sumatra started their preaching with Sufism values in the science of proximity. Also, the presence and influence of Shaykh Yûsûf al-Makassarî as a figure, Sufi bearer of the teachings of the Naqshabandiyah Order brought a holy spirit that was in line with the fundamental beliefs of the community so that it further strengthened the development of the Naqshabandiyah Order which ensured the new people in South Sulawesi. This Naqshabandiyah Order is a religious ritual group combined with cultural practices. This tarekat was not only a gathering place but also became a means of strengthening the Ukhuwwah Islamiyyah which became more actual when it was connected with the problem of social solidarity because in essence humans were social beings. In addition, the communication pattern of South Sulawesi religion and culture can also be seen when it coincides with religious custom events, besides that in the Naqshabandiyah tarekat institution it becomes a place to cure diseases; from minor illnesses to severe illnesses that doctors and hospitals cannot cure; like HIV AIDS, Santet disease and mental disorders or stress.Another thing and belief by the people of South Sulawesi that the practice of the Naqshabandiyah Order can bring blessings in the cultural rituals it carries out. Also, through routine practice in wirid, dhikr and khatam tawajjuh are the basis of the formation of patterns of action (model of) or cognitive systems whereas the values of spiritual belief in the features of the Naqshabandiyah Order culture are as a model for work or a value system. The impact of the practice of the Naqshabandiyah Order, the culprit, can feel a positive energy that brings calm and happiness. To get the blessings of Sufistic values, they usually use water as a medium by only being stored in a container and placed in a particular place that has been provided during the wirid, dhikr and khatam tawajjuh rituals, which are useful for relatives, relatives, and people who require by only drinking like drinking plain water, the benefits are as a manifestation of sacrality in profanity (hierophany). This shows that in the Naqshabandiyah Order, it contains Sufistic values that are so transcendent and intertwined in the cultural value system that they can enhance the integrity of the Sulawesi-Selatan community as a religious-culturalist society. Thus the existence of the Naqshabandiyah Congregation is always maintained as a means of mediation and meditation to get closer to God through sufistic values that are internalized in cultural values. The South Sulawesi community, in the context of contemporary life (the modern era), was influenced by the teachings of the Naqshabandiyah Order, and this was evident in its tendency to carry out the "modern" Sufi lifestyle. They believe that true tarekat is the one who stands on the right shari'a. The point as a "safe mode" is to carry out the teachings of Islam sincerely and always avoid things that are forbidden by Allah, as outlined by Islamic law whose values are inherently embedded in Sufism through the tarekat as the teachings of the Naqsyabandiyah Order in South Sulawesi.

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Friday, May 7, 2021



Contents: Chapter-One Chapter-Two: Chapter-Three Chapter-Four Chapter-Five Chapter-Six Chapter-Seven Topic Acknowledgement Introduction: Sources (a) A brief introduction on the origin of Naqshbandi Silsilah. (b) Primary sources: Persian and Urdu works. (c) Secondary sources: Works in English language Political and religious conditions of the Muslim world during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Socio-religious conditions of India during the reign of Emperor Akbar Socio-religious conditions of Indian Muslims in general Origin and development c^Naqshbandi Silsilah Doctrines oi Naqshbandi Silsilah Page No. 1-20 21-40 41-66 67-80 81-97 98-118 Shaykh Ahamad Sirhindi as a Naqshbandi Sufi 119-157 reformer Chapter-Eight Wahdat-al-Wujudand Wahdat-as-ShuhQd Section 1: General introduction on Wahdat-alWujUd and Wahdat-as-Shuhud Section 2: Wahdat-al-WujUd Sections: Wahdat-as-Shuhud 158-178Chapter-Nine Impact of the Naqshbandi Silsilah on Indian Muslims 179-296 Section 1: Impact of the Naqshbandi Silsilah on the Muslims of Punjab and Lahore Section 2: Impact of the Naqshbandi Silsilah on the Muslims of Delhi Section 3: Impact of the Naqshbandi Silsilah on the Muslims of Uttar Pardesh Section 4: Impact of the Naqshbandi Silsilah on the Muslims of Bihar Section 5: Impact of the Naqshbandi Silsilah on the Muslims of Bengal Section 6: Impact of the Naqshbandi Silsilah on the Muslims of Assam Section 7: Impact of the Naqshbandi Silsilah on the Muslims of Kashmir, Madhya Pardesh, Andhra Pardesh, Cheimai, Kerala and Orissa.

Source: PhD Thesis by Shamsul Hasan - Aligarh Muslim University

Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad: Paradigm of Leadership - Shaykh Ahmed Bullock RA ( 1924- 2018)

 Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad: Paradigm of Leadership - Shaykh Ahmed Bullock RA ( 1924- 2018)

Paradigms of Leadership returns with a new lecture on the late Ahmed Bullock, a respected British Muslim, Arabic and Hebrew scholar, dealer in books, and the first English Imam of Oxford. Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad takes us through his life, looking at a number of the Imam's own handwritten letters.Cambridge Muslim College 5/7/2021

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In Remembrance of Oxford's First Imam : Shaykh Ahmed Bullock

Shaykh Ahmed Bullock, of the age 94, passed away on October 25, as reported by the official Facebook page of Cambridge Muslim College. He was one of the Cambridge Muslim College (CMC)’s most respected supporters. Bullock was born in 1924 and studied at Pembroke College, Cambridge, the UK. He converted to Islam after World War II and then had become the first Imam of Oxford. For many years there, he had led the Bath Street Mosque.Bullock was also UK’s best-known oriental book dealer. He made the opening speech and prayer at the official opening of CMC along with the donation of many books to their library. Through the ages, there have been many prominent scholars on Islam and have taught at the University of Cambridge including Arthur Arberry who translated the Quran into English and his translation is regarded by many authorities as one of the best translations. Shaykh Bullock was the imam of about 4,000 Muslims in Cambridge and has left a great mark in the respective Muslim Community. May Allah(SWT) grant Imam Shaykh Bullock a high rank in Jannah. Please take out some time to recite Surah Fatiha for him, and pray for the health and well-being of the whole Muslim Ummah.

Cambridge Muslim College : Shaykh Ahmed Bullock passes

On 25 October, one of CMC's most respected supporters moved on to the Abode of Eternity. Shaykh Ahmed was born in 1924. After studying at Pembroke College, Cambridge and seeing active service during World War II, he converted to Islam and became the first imam of Oxford, where he led the Bath Street Mosque for many years. He was also the UK's best-known Oriental book dealer. He made the opening speech and prayer at the official opening of CMC, and donated many books to our library. May he rest in peace.